As we discussed earlier, poor people are usually obliged to combine a range of strategies in order simply to survive; individuals may engage in multiple activities, and the different members of a household may live and work in different places. This could be true, for example, where a person or household sells their land to migrate to a city. support consumption needs. agency (livelihood strategies). Are there trends that you have benefited from? Sometimes one outcome can negatively affect another; for example, when poor people engage in less risky, and hence lower income activities, in order to be less vulnerable to shocks. stresses." the desire for the same entitlements or rights. DFID. It is very important to keep in mind that the wider environment affects not only the assets to which people have access, but also what can be achieved with those assets. Seasonal shifts in prices, production and employment opportunities are one of the most enduring sources of hardship for poor people all over the world. Wider economic conditions can create more or fewer opportunities; an illness in the family can deprive a family of an important source of income and can force them to sell important assets that they have built up. This includes trends (such as national or international economic trends, changes in available technology, political systems), shocks (such as illness or death, conflict, weather), and seasonality (of prices, production cycles and so on). Among others, the Department for International Development (DfID), of UK, the UN system including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and national governments have actively used the SLF since the common with DFID's SLF, while also including elements of the Basic Needs Approach (see GLOPP lesson The sustainable livelihoods framework has also been criticised for failing to take power dynamics into consideration, as it relates to gender, for example. Wherever people live, they retain essentially the same human needs, and activities are only a means to improve livelihoods and not an end in Nonetheless, it remains very useful for our purposes in this module, both for considering the very micro-level details of poor people's livelihoods and for considering the wider context in which those livelihoods operate. livelihoods. These constraints and opportunities are shaped by numerous factors, ranging from global or national level trends and structures over which individuals have no control, and may not even be aware of, to more local norms and institutions and, finally, the assets to which the households or individual has direct access. to understand the typical levels of human, social, economic and natural In particular, social capital has often been seen as simply 'a good thing' whereas, in reality, social networks can be both inclusive and exclusive, with often the weakest and most vulnerable excluded. The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). society of which they are part. Thus these requirements amount to the entitlement each person has to To evaluate what changes are taking place in the livelihood The holistic framework which has been developed by DFID is intended to: • Define the scope of and provide the analytic basis for livelihood analysis • Help those concerned with supporting SRL to understand and manage the complexity of around a household's livelihoods strategy. You might, therefore, find it helpful to ‘test’ the livelihoods framework by trying to assess your own personal situation. What shocks have you suffered along the way? They also often involve hierarchical and coercive relationships that limit options for those at the lower levels, and even when relationships are more horizontal than vertical, the obligations that reciprocal relationships involve can be onerous. Based on those assets, and shaped by the vulnerability context and the transforming structures and processes, poor people are able to undertake a range of livelihood strategies - activities and choices - that ultimately determine their livelihood outcomes. A contextual analysis The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and opportunities that they are subjected to. The framework shows how, in different contexts, sustainable livelihoods are achieved through access to a range of livelihood resources (natural, economic, human and social capitals) which are combined in the pursuit of different livelihood strategies (agricultural intensification or extensification, livelihood diversification and migration). The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) concept and framework adopted by DFID in the late 1990s (building on work by IDS, IISD, Oxfam and others) have been adapted by different organisations to suit a variety of contexts, issues, priorities and applications. Livelihood frameworks are thus tools to help us understand They require food, shelter, clothing, access to medical facilities, the ability to The sustainable livelihoods framework helps to organize the factors that constrain or enhance livelihood op-portunities and shows how they relate to one another. that remains unchanged: people themselves. resources; infrastructure; economic, cultural and political environment) The livelihood strategies and activities of poor people are often complex and diverse. security (De Haan et al. These objectives relate directly to the livelihoods framework; they will be explored in greater detail in Section 2 of the Guidance Sheets. and to build up assets to withstand and recover from shocks and 4.5 Livelihood strategies – how do the rural poor make a living? DFID sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets Author: DFID Year: 1999 Resource type: Official. Figure 1: Sustainable livelihoods framework . CARE's model focuses economic growth taking place in most developing countries seemed to Each of DFID’sadvisory cadres have a technical competency framework (TCF) that sets out the For now, we will use the household as a unit of analysis, but as we will discuss in later units, it is important to recognise that not all individuals within a household have equal decision-making power, or benefit equally from household assets or income. that affect livelihoods on the one hand, and to identify the major shock The SLF was integrated in its program for development cooperation in 1997. mediate livelihood opportunities, which are also shaped by people's outcome status for different areas of livelihood clearly a distinct experience from life in a rural setting. lead a life that is fundamentally secure in respect both of the These objectives relate directly to the livelihoods framework; they will be explored in greater detail in Section 2 of the Guidance Sheets. Both frameworks are people-centred. security status of households requires monitoring of the consumption educate children, and the ability to participate, in all senses alleviation as a key objective. All of the criticisms and limitations of the sustainable livelihoods approach outlined above are certainly valid. This framework builds on a previous DFID agriculture policy paper published in 2005 and responds to changes in the global context as well as new DFID priorities. The very fact that you are studying this programme suggests that you are more fortunate than most people in your country, or in the world as a whole, or at least that you are not poor. security linked to basic needs. Together they define the scope of DFID’s livelihood-promoting 18 ... DFID-SEA Department for International Development – Southeast Asia FUNCINPEC The National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful and Co- ... University of Hull established the broad framework for the study. The sustainable livelihoods approach is no more than an attempt to provide a tool which is ‘useful to think with’. A The sustainable livelihoods framework in 3.1.1 is an effort to conceptualise livelihoods in a holistic way, capturing the many complexities of livelihoods, and the constraints and opportunities that they are subjected to. • The framework considers five types of capital - the “asset pentagon”- and how these A livelihood framework is a tool that can be used to improve our understanding of the multiple components and processes that make up livelihood – particularly the livelihood of the poor. The vulnerability context is important because the three factors have a direct impact on the possibilities that poor people have to earn a living now and in the future. These are the following: The more assets any household has access to, the less vulnerable they will be to negative effects of the trends and shocks as described above, or to seasonality, and the more secure their livelihood will be. improve livelihoods. Basically the CARE's livelihoods framework shares key aspects in common with DFID's SLF, while also including elements of the Basic Needs Approach (see GLOPP lesson "Development Theories") as targets for livelihood outcomes. The DFID has developed a ‘Sustainable Livelihood Framework’ (SLF) which is one of the most widely used livelihoods frameworks in development practice. De Haan (2002) Are there structures and processes that have helped or hindered your progress so far? needs of vulnerable people and how these needs are met in order to All of these can change both the vulnerability context and the assets to which poor people have access. DFID adapts a … CARE seeks to understand the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework “A livelihood comprises the assets (Natural, Physical, Human, Financial and Social Capital), the activities ... 2.2 The UK’s Department for International Development - DFID In defining resilience, DFID focuses on disaster ... DFID Elements of Resilience Framework (DFID 2011) 6. This has led, for example, to a limited understanding of how markets work; how processes far from the lives of poor people nonetheless have an enormous impact on the possibilities that exist for them to earn a secure income. livelihoods, both in rural and urban areas. What do you ‘have’, that has enabled you to get to your present status, and that will most likely enable you to progress further, by whatever measures you assess progress? Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor l… CARE makes use of various figures to support the application of This paper sets out a conceptual framework to guide DFID’s future approach to agriculture and the agrifood sector. of welfare for the weakest groups of society (Elliott 2002). Under the Basic Needs Approach, development was redefined as a Department of International Development (DFID). Often increasing one type of capital will lead to an increase in other amounts of capital, for example, as people become educated (increase in human capital) they may get a better job which earns more money (increase in financial capital) which in turn means that they are able to upgrade their home and facilities (increase in physical capital). production, income and exchange activities that result from them. direct approach was required to deliver welfare outcomes. 1999) Thus, CARE's emphasis is on household livelihood modernisation and as a break with past development theory. within urban contexts. They require access to productive resources By the end of the 1960s, it was widely agreed that the The BNA gained momentum in the mid 1970s and had poverty (socially, politically, intellectually and spiritually), in the Unit 1 What is Rural Finance, and How Does it Fit into 'Development'. go hand in hand with an increase in absolute and relative poverty. and stress factors affecting livelihoods on the other. summarised in terms of the livelihood It is rooted ‘in farming systems research in the late 1970s and early 1980s and later in nutritional diagnostic work…’ (Toolkit, p.v). In so doing, there is a realisation that production and income The framework … These issues are of course captured in the wider sustainable livelihoods framework, within the transforming structures and processes and the 'vulnerability context' but, in practice, many people have used the idea of the five capitals more than they have the linkages between those and the wider environment in which people live. 2.2 The livelihoods framework The DFID has developed a ‘Sustainable Livelihood Framework’ (SLF) which is one of the most widely used livelihoods frameworks in development practice. The livelihood assets, DFID aims to understand livelihood strategies as part of its overall framework but in principle focuses its actual development activity on either assets themselves or on structures and processes (the idea being that this will maximize people's opportunities over the long term). Open the PDF file in the right-hand column and take a look at an (Drinkwater et al. The aim of the HLS approach can be described as: These are represented by five key types of assets that households can draw from to achieve positive livelihood outcomes. A central notion is that different households have differ-ent access livelihood assets, which the sustainable livelihood approach aims to expand. Comparing agencies All three agencies use the SL approach as a strategy towards poverty Two recent DFID evidence reproductive Source: DFID, 1999. The UK Department for International Development (DFID) has been one of the first agencies to use this framework (for more information, see DFID and IDS, 2000). Analysing livelihood strategies aims The DFID leverages a sustainable livelihoods framework to focus holistically on activities directly related to improving an individual's livelihood. The Department for International Development is the United Kingdom's department dedicated to eradicating extreme poverty and administering foreign aid. The livelihoods framework is a tool to improve our understanding of livelihoods, particularly the livelihoods of the poor. The asset box depicted in the broad-based, people-oriented or endogenous process, as a critique of The approach attempts to summarise in a single set of diagrams and connected terms the extremely complex and diverse reasons for poverty and the possibilities for addressing it. BNA led to many programmes focused • a policy and institutional environment that supports multiple livelihood strategies and promotes equitable access to competitive markets for all. activities The concept of SLA had first appeared in research literature in The idea of assets is central to the sustainable livelihoods approach. A central element of DFID’s approach is the SL Framework, an analytical structure to facilitate a broad and systematic understanding of the various factors that constrain or enhance livelihood opportunities, and to show how they relate to each other. 1999). diagram includes. It was developed over a period of several months by the Sustainable Rural Livelihoods Advisory Committee, building on earlier work by the Institute of Development Studies (amongst others). Consumption activities for each household member can then be livelihood.". For rural people, agriculture and other natural resource-based activities may play an important role, but rural households also diversify into other activities, some of which are linked to agriculture and the natural resources sector, others which are not. status and asset levels of household members (Drinkwater et al. participatory methodology and adapting DFID's sustainable livelihoods framework, the research will identify how AIDS-affected young people are incorporated into (or excluded from) current household livelihood strategies, the processes and practices that shape their access to livelihood opportunities, now and in the future, and how they make decisions about livelihoods. As a whole, this set of Guidance Sheets attempts to summarise and share emerging thinking on the sustainable livelihoods approach. 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