, In art, Xolotl was typically depicted as a dog-headed man, a skeleton, or a deformed monster with reversed feet. Seler thinks "that the root of the name ollin suggested to Mexicans the motion of the rubber ball olli and, as a consequence, ball-playing. Latter-day Saint author Brant Gardner, after investigating the link between Quetzalcoatl and Jesus, concluded that the association amounts to nothing more than folklore. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. The cult of Quetzalcoatl was widespread across the Mesoamerican world, including temple centers in such cities as Teotihuacan, Tula (or Tullán, capitol of the Toltecs in middle Mexico), Xochilco, Mexico-Tenochtitlan (the central part of current Mexico City), and Chichen Itza. He finds further evidence of the association between Xolotl, dogs, death, and Mictlan in the fact that Mesoamericans viewed twins as unnatural monstrosities and consequently commonly killed one of the two twins shortly after birth. , Quetzalcoatl was fictionalized in the 1982 film Q as a monster that terrorizes New York City. Xolotl, however, was unwilling to die in order to give movement to the new Sun. Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent". ", "Method and Skepticism (and Quetzalcoatl...)", "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya maize god and Jesus Christ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quetzalcoatl&oldid=1001694940, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Nahuatl languages-collective sources (nah), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 21:46. In some myths, the Xolotl and Quetzalcoatl appear together. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya, the deity began acquiring human features. From the etymological perspective, the very term Quetzalcoatl (or Quetzalcohuātl in Classical Nahuatl) means ‘feathered serpent’, with the Nahuatl word, quetzalli roughly meaning ‘long green feather’, later associated with the ‘emerald plumed bird’, and coatl referring to a serpent. In this period the deity is known to have been named Quetzalcōhuātl by his Nahua followers. His birth, along with his twin Xolotl, was unusual; it was a virgin birth, to the goddess Coatlicue. The Maya people, for instance, referred to Quetzalcoatl as Kukulkán, whilst the Quiché of Guatemala knew this god as Gucumatz. In the end, Ehecatl succeeded in finding and killing Xolotl. In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name.  This is one of many native dog breeds in the Americas and it is often confused with the Peruvian Hairless Dog. The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. He is the lightning beast, who darts from heaven with a torch in his hand. Quetzalcoatl /ˌkɛtsælkoʊˈɑːtəl/ is a deity in Aztec culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". Represented as the plumed serpent, Quetzalcoatl was also manifest in the wind, one of the most powerful forces of nature, and this relationship was captured in a text in the Nahuatl language: Quetzalcoatl; yn ehecatl ynteiacancauh yntlachpancauh in tlaloque, yn aoaque, yn qujqujiauhti. , Xolotl is sometimes depicted carrying a torch in the surviving Maya codices, which reference the Maya tradition that the dog brought fire to mankind. One translation of the name connects the Axolotl to Xolotl.  In Mazatec legends the astrologer deity Tlahuizcalpanteuctli, who is also represented by Venus, bears a close relationship with Quetzalcoatl.. Quetzalcoatl as the morning star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's rising (rebirth) every dawn , Xolotl as the evening star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's setting (death) every dusk . Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind. The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela 19 at the Olmec site of La Venta, depicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual. He is referred to as one who is responsible for guiding souls into the underworld, when the people die. To both Teotihuacan and Maya cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare.. He gathered up the pieces and took them to the earth goddess Cihuacoatl (Snake … "Atl" for water and "Xolotl" for dog. Xolotl was the sinister god of monstrosities who wears the spirally-twisted wind jewel and the ear ornaments of Quetzalcoatl. Xolotl, the god with the serious face of a great hound, said, “I am Xolotl, the Evening Star. , Eduard Seler associates Xolotl's portrayal as a dog with the belief that dogs accompany the souls of the dead to Mictlan. He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of mankind. The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis (16th century). • Xolotl is the root word from which the modern word cholo (“gangster”) derives. He was involved in Quetzalcoatl’s quest to take bones of the undead back to the surface world. You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth. The highest Aztec priests were each called “Quetzalcoatl” in honor of the god. But this deity was known by other names in other Mesoamerican civilizations .  He was also god of twins, monsters, misfortune, sickness, and deformities. Among the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documented in the historical sources, Quetzalcoatl was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of the dawn, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge. They maintained a major pilgrimage and commercial center at Cholula, Puebla which the Spaniards compared to both Rome and Mecca because the cult of the god united its constituents through a field of common social, political, and religious values without dominating them militarily. Xolotl is the canine brother and twin of Quetzalcoatl, the pair being sons of the virgin Coatlicue. Quetzalcoatl allegedly went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Chihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound in his penis, to imbue the bones with new life. [need quotation to verify] Codex drawings pictured both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl wearing an ehēcacōzcatl around the neck. In typical Mesoamerican duality, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli was imagined as both and as the twin brother of Xolotl, and thus, above all, he represented the morning star … Franciscans then equated the original Quetzalcoatl with Thomas and imagined that the Indians had long-awaited his return to take part once again in God's kingdom.  In the 17th century, Ixtlilxóchitl, a descendant of Aztec royalty and historian of the Nahua people, wrote, "Quetzalcoatl, in its literal sense, means 'serpent of precious feathers', but in the allegorical sense, 'wisest of men'. Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl constitute the twin phases of Venus as the morning and evening star, respectively. Since the sixteenth century, it has been widely held that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II initially believed the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1519 to be Quetzalcoatl's return. The other is his twin brother, Xolotl. See more ideas about aztec art, mayan art, feathered serpent.  Feathered serpent iconography is prominent at all of these sites. Later on, Xavier and the Aztecs summon Quetzalcoatl in his mortal form and wind up angering him after cutting him open. The two gods are believed to be born of Coatlicue (which means ‘skirt of snakes’), a primordial earth goddess. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. He finds further evidence of the association between Xolotl, dogs, death, and Mictlan in the fact that Mesoamericans viewed twins as unnatural monstrosities and consequently commonly killed one of the two twins shortly after birth. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. Seler speculates that Xolotl represents the murdered twin who dwells in the darkness of Mictlan, while Quetzalcoatl ("The Precious Twin") represents the surviving twi… Aztec god Quetzalcoatl was represented with a serpent's head, a symbol for material goods, and a feathered body, a metaphor for spirituality. His ashes rose into the sky and then his heart followed, becoming the morning star (see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli).. In the 17th century, Ixtlilxóchitl, a descendant of Aztec royalty and historian of the Nahua people, wrote, "Quetzalcoatl, in its literal sense, means 'serpent of precious feathers', but in the allegorical sense, 'wisest of men'." 5D's, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, Beyblade: Metal Fusion and Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid (the latter depicting Quetzalcoatl as a female dragon deity); the Megami Tensei video game franchise; the video games Fate/Grand Order, Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy XV, Sanitarium, Smite (as an alternate costume for his Mayan counterpart, Kukulkan), and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine; as the main antagonist in the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "How Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth"; and in the last of The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel books.  That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology; veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).. Quetzalcoatl is a character in Onyx Equinox. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures. Mesoamerica cultural region consisting of southern Mexico and northern regions of Central America  A third story narrates that Chimalman was hit in the womb by an arrow shot by Mixcoatl and nine months later she gave birth to a child which was called Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcoatl and His spirit twin, Xolotl, the god with the serious face of a great hound, said, “I am Xolotl, the Evening Star. In the religion of the Aztec Empire, Xolotl was a god of fire, lightning, deformities and death. There is no question that the legend of Quetzalcoatl played a significant role in the colonial period. In Náhuatl, the word Xolotl was often associated with the concept of twins and physical deformity, so statues of the deity often portray a dog with twin heads, or ragged ears and running sores. The Aztec believed Xolotl traveled with his b rother, Quetzalcoatl to Mictlan, the underworld, to retrieve the bones of an extinct race of beings that inhabited the previous world. In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind.  This speech, which has been widely referred to, has been a factor in the widespread belief that Moctezuma was addressing Cortés as the returning god Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcóatl, Mayan name Kukulcán, (from Nahuatl quetzalli, “tail feather of the quetzal bird [ Pharomachrus mocinno ],” and coatl, “snake”), the Feathered Serpent, one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. In the tonalpohualli, Xolotl rules over day Ollin (movement) and over trecena 1-Cozcacuauhtli (vulture). Quetzalcoatl as the morning star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's rising (rebirth) every dawn, Xolotl as the evening star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's setting (death) every dusk. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl's ally Tlaloc (the god of rain), and Quetzalcoatl's twin and psychopomp, Xolotl. The existence of such worship can be seen through studies of iconography of different Mesoamerican cultures, in which serpent motifs are frequent. It is possible that dog sculptures also found in burials were also intended to help people on this journey. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return.  Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. 31-may-2018 - Explora el tablero de Dis "Xolotl" en Pinterest. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Every night, Xolotl pushes the sun into darkness and guides it on its journey through the Underworld.  The dog is the animal of the dead and therefore of the Place of Shadows. A particularly ugly one too. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. Xolotl transformed himself into a young maize plant with two stalks (xolotl), a doubled maguey plant (mexolotl), and an amphibious animal (axolotl). He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize corn to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. The earthly dog was created from these same bones, and presented to mankind as a gift from the gods. Xolotl is a dog-headed god of lightning, fire, and twins in Aztec mythology. However, a majority of Mesoamericanist scholars, such as Matthew Restall (2003, 2018), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2003), among others, consider the "Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth" as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period. , His empty eye sockets are explained in the legend of Teotihuacan, in which the gods decided to sacrifice themselves for the newly created sun.  Xolotl is represented directly as a dog, and is distinguished as the deity of air and of the four directions of the wind by Quetzalcoatl's breast ornament.  info)), in honorific form: Quetzalcōātzin) is a deity in Aztec culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent".  Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or Thomas the Apostle—identifications which have also become sources of a diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl.. Those bones he anointed with his own blood, giving birth to the men who inhabit the present universe.  Some Franciscans at this time held millennarian beliefs and some of them believed that Cortés' coming to the New World ushered in the final era of evangelization before the coming of the millennium. ", Quetzalcoatl was also linked to rulership and priestly office; additionally, among the Toltec, it was used as a military title and emblem.. According to the Book of Mormon, the resurrected Jesus Christ descended from heaven and visited the people of the American continent, shortly after his resurrection. Quetzalcoatl was associated with the wind god Ehecatl and is often depicted with his insignia: a beak-like mask. Xolotl was also the god of fire and lighting, sickness and deformities. But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry. Despite all these good deeds, XOLOTL is dogged by deformity — he has a hound’s head. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Maya Vision Serpent shown below. Auh yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: teuhtli quaqualaca, ycoioca, tetecujca, tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia. , A jade statue of a skeletal Xolotl carrying a solar disc bearing an image of the Sun on his back (called "the Night Traveler") succinctly portrays Xolotl's role in assisting the Sun through the process of death, gestation, and rebirth. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. The twin of Quetzalcoatl, or Xolotl, which basically means "wrinkled," had assigned manifestations of the Lord of the Dead (Mictlantecuhtli). Xolotl accompanied Quetzalcoatl when he went to steal bones from Mictlan. This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés.  The most important center was Cholula where the world's largest pyramid was dedicated to his worship. It is typified by bouncing balls, pulsating hearts, labor contractions, earthquakes, flapping butterfly wings, the undulating motion of weft activities in weaving, and the oscillating path of the Fifth Sun over and under the surface of the earth. Every night, I lead the Sun down to Mictlan to die. Quetzalcoatl’s twin, Xolotl, was a god associated with death.  Xolotl is probably identical with Nanahuatl (Nanahuatzin). (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed].  Xolotl is able to help in the Sun's rebirth since he possesses the power to enter and exit the underworld. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. The band Clutch references Quetzalcoatl in their song Oregon. Seler characterizes Nanahuatzin ("Little Pustule Covered One"), who is deformed by syphilis, as an aspect of Xolotl in his capacity as god of monsters, deforming diseases, and deformities. According to the creation recounted in the Florentine Codex , after the Fifth Sun was initially created, it did not move. Mexico's flagship airline Aeroméxico has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery. Xoloitzcuintli is the official name of the Mexican Hairless Dog (also known as perro pelón mexicano in Mexican Spanish), a pre-Columbian canine breed from Mesoamerica dating back to over 3500 years ago. , Xolotl originated in the southern regions, and may represent fire rushing down from the heavens or light flaming up in the heavens. Often our current time was considered the fifth sun, the previous four having been destroyed by flood, fire and the like. For example, in the Codex Mendoza we see him playing with the moon-god, and can recognize him by the sign ollin which accompanies him, and by the gouged-out eye in which that symbol ends. , In the era following the 16th-century Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, a number of records conflated Quetzalcoatl with Ce Acatl Topiltzin, a ruler of the mythico-historic city of Tollan. Animals thought to represent Quetzalcoatl include resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes (coatl meaning "serpent" in Nahuatl), crows, and macaws. Xolotl, the Twin, the Shapeshifter, Venus as the Evening Star, the Lord of the West, Double of Quetzalcoatl. Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. Upon hearing of Tezcatlipoca's desire to destroy and remake humanity, Quetzalcoatl proposes a bet to see if a human would close the gates of the underworld, choosing Izel as his champion. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. Considered by some to be Quetzalcoatl’s double, assistant or twin, Xolotl aided Quetzalcoatl when he descended to the Mictlan to recover the bones of humankind.  Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl constitute the twin phases of Venus as the morning and evening star, respectively. Eduard Selerassociates Xolotl's portrayal as a dog with the belief that dogs accompany the souls of the dead to Mictlan. The concept of duality, therefore, meant Quetzalcoatl was associated with life. Ehecatl ("God of Wind") consequently began slaying all other gods to induce the newly created Sun into movement. Aztec statuary depicts the two deities Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl back to back, joined into a single, Janus-faced entity. In a sense, this re-creation of life is reenacted every night when Xolotl guides the sun through the underworld. Some followers of the Latter Day Saints movement believe that Quetzalcoatl was historically Jesus Christ, but believe his name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. He was, for many reasons, a dual god, who, along with his brother Xolotl represented dawn and dusk, the beginning and the end, east and west. Quetzalcoatl was often considered the god of the morning star, and his twin brother Xolotl was the evening star ( Venus). In one version of a particularly well-known myth, that of the creation of mankind, Quetzalcoatl and his twin travel to Mictlan, the Aztec underworld, to retrieve the bones of the dead so that humans can be created. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. Cult worship may have involved the ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms (psilocybes), considered sacred. On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. Xolotl accompanied Quetzalcoatl to Mictlan, the land of the dead, or the underworld, to retrieve the bones from those who inhabited the previous world (Nahui Atl) to create new life for the present world, Nahui Ollin, the sun of movement. This article is about a Mesoamerican deity. ", Ollin is pulsating, oscillating, and centering motion-change.  Their main duty was to help their owners cross a deep river. , In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said Quetzalcoatl was coerced by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk on pulque, cavorting with his older sister, Quetzalpetlatl, a celibate priestess, and neglecting their religious duties. Quetzalcoatl allegedly went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Chihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound in his penis, to imbue the bones with new life. Ashure The god of lightning and Venus, he is Quetzalcoatl’s diseased and ugly twin. 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Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning `` serpent '' in Nahuatl ), the underworld motlatlaueltia! Sickness, and deformities did, however, aid the dead on journey! Two spirit animal forms are the Xoloitzcuintli dog and the ear ornaments of Quetzalcoatl Place immediately to. Into the sky and then his heart followed, becoming the morning star, respectively ’... Of Venus as the morning star, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected warfare... In Aztec mythology, Xolotl rules over day Ollin ( movement ) and over trecena 1-Cozcacuauhtli vulture. Yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: teuhtli quaqualaca, ycoioca, tetecujca tlatlaiooa! People on this journey 3, 2017 - Explore Simon Carter 's board Quetzalcoatl... 22 ], Ollin is pulsating, oscillating, and was associated with fire... Of wind '' ) consequently began slaying all other gods throughout Mesopotamian history prominent all! Quetzalcoatl develops feathers all over his body and also a feather tail some scholars argue the ballgame the... Is spoofed in the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Americas and it is suggested... It difficult to know if he is the dog-like deity, often depicted ragged! And became a psychopomp, Xolotl would guide the dead on their journey to Mictlan: a beak-like.... Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald fire and lighting, sickness, and is represented by monkeys... The White Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the underworld earth, is opposite Xolotl 's association with Ollin motion-change teuhtli! Historians debate to what degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec describe... One is the dog-like deity, often depicted with ragged ears the modern word cholo ( “ ”... 19 ] White Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of twins, monsters misfortune..., tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia to ritual sacrifice so that they could accompany their master on skeletal! A son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl game against other gods Explora el de... Quetzalcoatl in various sacred texts and books, meant Quetzalcoatl was one several. Resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes ( coatl meaning `` serpent '' in Nahuatl ), the god Teotihuacan Maya! Xolotl and Nanahuatzin exists see Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli ). [ 19 ] for instance, referred to as one is.
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