Colonel Elkanah Greer of the 3rd Texas Cavalry took command of another portion of the division and, after holding his position until after dark, also marched around Big Mountain to the tavern. 2, General Braxton Bragg, divided Mississippi into several commands to defend the state in his absence. was forced into a defensive position. The Union Army was the army that fought for the Union during the American Civil War.It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army. Due to having no ammunition reserves nearby, the Confederates soon ran very low on artillery shells and couldn't resupply for at least five or six hours. 13 terms. [4] Pike was able to rally a portion of the division and lead it back to the Bentonville Detour, where it marched around the northern end of Big Mountain and to Elkhorn Tavern. Price deployed the State Guard on his left and the Missouri Confederate brigades on the right; following an artillery bombardment, he ordered a charge. [10], In the meantime, Price launched an offensive without waiting for Van Dorn's forces, mostly due to pressure from Bragg. At this time, General P. G. T. Beauregard, acting for Johnston, ordered Van Dorn to bring his army to Corinth, Mississippi to join Johnston's force for an attack on the Union army at Shiloh. West Virginia did not organize any confederate regiments. On the first day, Price's troops drove the Union troops from their lines north of Corinth into their second line of fortifications; on the second, his divisions overran several parts of the Union line and briefly entered into Corinth but had to fall back due to lack of support. West Virginia divided from Virginia and became a state June 20, 1863 because of the Civil War. The Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System (CWSS) is a database containing information about the men who served in the Union and Confederate armies during the Civil War. These member organizations are individual groups with their own members and commanders, but also members of the UAW. The remaining units were reorganized by Price into two divisions commanded by Brigadier Generals Henry Little and Dabney Maury, with a cavalry brigade commanded by Colonel Frank Armstrong. 2 and Union Army of West Tennessee: February 11 – 16, 1862 Battle of Island Number Ten: Confederate Department No. 50, 56–57, 63–65, 70, 74–115, 133. It saw action in the Battle of Pea Ridge, Battle of Corinth, and Battle of Iuka and consisted of about 20,000 personnel. For the Union, West Virginia mustered between 22,000 and 25,000 menin 20 infantry units, 7 cavalry units, 1 artillery unit and 3 other types of units. The time has come! Hulbut then crossed several regiments to the east bank, which suffered 570 casualties, mostly due to sharpshooters and artillery fire. During both days, Lovell failed to fully support Price's attacks, which may have been due to his opposition to attacking Corinth at all. Help save a crucial 22-acre tract on the battlefield where 14 African American soldiers earned the highest military honor in the land. The U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and one of mounted infantr… [1] During February 1862, the Union Army of the Southwest commanded by Brigadier General Samuel R. Curtis drove the Missouri State Guard out of the state and into northwestern Arkansas, where Price united with McCulloch's forces. Please consider making a gift today to help raise the $170,000 we need to preserve this piece of American history forever. Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, Second Corinth Confederate order of battle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Army_of_the_West_(1862)&oldid=998529132, Military units and formations established in 1862, Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 20:09. The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. Van Dorn was appointed commander of the District of the Mississippi, centered around Vicksburg; Price was given the District of the Tennessee, covering northwestern Mississippi and northeastern Alabama, with the Army of the West as his field army. This enabled Price to concentrate on Rosecrans, resulting in the Battle of Iuka; the Confederates overpowered the initial Union line and held it against Union counterattacks. This force was also known as the Army of Southwest Missouri. Led by newly promoted Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon, the Federal forces were a combination of regular United States Army and volunteers from Missouri, Kansas and Iowa. Defend your homeland, fight for what … [9], Following the transfer of the Army of the West to Corinth, part of the army was incorporated into the Army of Mississippi. During the two‑day Battle of Corinth, Price's corps did much of the fighting. Union Army of the West (5,600 men) Commander: Brigadier General Nathaniel Lyon. Army of the West, 1861 Department of Kansas , November 9, 1861–65 Department of New Mexico , to July 3, 1861, (merged into Western Department); Restored November 9, 1861 - June 27, 1865 Union Army of the West, Whittier. 343–344. 136–140, 175–193, 203–213, 237–268, 271, 306. The Regiment is part of the Cavalry Brigade of the Union Army of the West , Inc. (see the link to the UAOW). The two columns reached Iuka on September 19 but due to poor communications and misunderstanding, Grant failed to attack as planned. It consisted of the small United States Army (the regular army), augmented by massive numbers of units supplied by the Northern states, composed of volunteers as well as draftees. During 1861, Confederate forces in Missouri and Arkansas were divided into two independent commands: Major General Sterling Price's pro–Confederate Missouri State Guard, based in southwestern Missouri, and Major General Benjamin McCulloch's Confederate volunteers, based in northwestern Arkansas and the Indian Territory. The Army of the West, also known as the Trans-Mississippi District, was a formation of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War that was a part of the Army of Mississippi. The Civil War had a profound impact on western Indians. Donations to the Trust are tax deductible to the full extent allowable under the law. [14], For the U.S. army during the Mexican-American War, see. [3], Van Dorn launched his offensive on March 5; when he discovered that Curtis was positioned behind fortifications located along the Little Sugar Creek, Van Dorn decided to march around the Union left flank and attack from the rear, starting the flanking march during the night of March 6–7. Upon learning of Grant's approach, Price decided to retreat to avoid being surrounded; total Confederate casualties were 652, with Little killed and succeeded by Brigadier General Louis Hebert. Please go into the website to see our history, schedule for the year, and our list of members. O n July 6, 1864, a large contingent of Union soldiers, many hefting picks and shovels, marched to a point just west of Jerusalem Plank Road, a mile south of the Confederate earthworks protecting Petersburg, Virginia. Grant's Union armies in the West and East that battled Confederate armies, inflicted more casualties, a total of 190,760 Confederate versus 153,643 Union, a difference of 37,118. 1st Brigade (884) Major Samuel D. Sturgis With fighting in the Valley … [5], Meanwhile, Price's force, accompanied by Van Dorn, arrived near Elkhorn Tavern to find Colonel Eugene Carr's Union division defending the crest. The Union had effective leadership in the West. The Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified, augmented, and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts.To this end, the Union Army fought and ultimately triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. The U.S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, and one of mounted infantr… [8], Once the army arrived at Van Buren, Van Dorn reorganized it into a single division under Price, with four infantry brigades, two cavalry brigades, and an artillery brigade. On the morning of October 6, Van Dorn learned that another Union force commanded by Stephen Hulbut was approaching from the west; he assigned Maury's division to hold the Davis Bridge over the Hatchie River until the army could reach another crossing six miles to the south. However, a portion of the Union army, commanded by Brigadier General Franz Sigel intercepted McCulloch's men near the southwest corner of Big Mountain. Defend your homeland, fight for what is right, and bring liberty and justice to the south! It campaigned primarily in West Virginia, Southwest Virginia and in the Shenandoah Valley. Price was reassigned to the Trans-Mississippi Department in February 1863 but the Missouri regiments were not transferred with him as he had requested. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U.S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Army. Neither Van Dorn nor Price remained behind to supervise the retreat, so the units left the field chaotically, with the artillery batteries leaving as they ran out of ammunition and the infantry and cavalry regiments following. Price also started the process of enlisting his men from the Missouri State Guard into the Confederate volunteer army but the process was slow and only one brigade was organized onto complete regiments by March; another brigade was composed only of battalions and a third of partial organized battalions and companies. Once he arrived in Arkansas, Van Dorn designated each command a division and enlisted additional troops, organizing them into the 19th and 20th Arkansas Infantry regiments. Both Price and McCulloch feuded with each other concerning the proper Confederate strategy in the Trans–Mississippi area, and cooperated only once, during the Wilson's Creek campaign in August 1861. hedgie_lim. The Union Army of the West, Inc. is an umbrella organization for multiple re-enacting organizations. . These armies were comprised of U.S. regulars (professional soldiers of the regular United States Army (the Federal army), and the volunteer units supplied by the Northern and Western states and territories. Known in official reports as Redoubt H, it was a key part of the Union’s plan to push the Confederate army to the breaking point. Grant and Rosecrans immediately formed a plan of trapping Price, with Grant moving in from the northwest to hold Price's attention, while Rosecrans attacked from the south and southwest to cut off Price's lines of retreat. While an attack by Pike's brigade and Brigadier General James McIntosh's cavalry brigade drove back the Union forces from their initial positions, McCulloch was killed while scouting the second Union line, McIntosh was killed while leading a regiment into position, and Union reinforcements routed McCulloch's infantry brigade and captured its leader, Colonel Louis Hebert. The time has come! The retreat continued westward, with Lovell's division serving as a rearguard against Rosecrans and Price's divisions in front. Both Price's and Van Dorn's districts were merged into the Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana, commanded by Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton, who took over the Army of West Tennessee. The Union army launched a series of campaigns in the West against tribes such as the Kiowas, Comanches, and Navajo. About 25% of the white men who served in the Union Army were foreign-born. Approximately 9,000 West Virginians chose to fight for the Confederate States of America and generally joined the confederate regiments o… Although opposed to the plan, Price went along with it. Help Save 110 Acres at Three Civil War Battlefields, Preserve 108 Acres of the Most Important Unprotected Battlefield Land, Kentuckians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation, Virginians: Support Battlefield Preservation Legislation. Cozzens, pp. Why the Union was successful in the West during the Civil War? The Union Army of the West was a Union Army in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. After the Battle of Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River, victorious Gen. Ulysses S. Grant came to be known as “Unconditional Surrender” Grant for his rejection of any terms other than unconditional surrender of the fort. Turning Points. [7], Curtis concentrated his army around the Confederate positions near Elkhorn Tavern during the night; at dawn he started an artillery bombardment which lasted two hours. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U.S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate States Army. The Confederates settled into winter quarters in the northern Boston Mountains, where Price immediately started feuding with McCulloch again. [45] Dates of rank [ edit ] Maury formed a line on the west side of the creek but the line was overrun with the loss of 300 prisoners. It appears that the term "Army of the Tennessee" was first used within the Union Army in March 1862, to describe Union forces perhaps more properly described as the "Army of West Tennessee"; these were the troops under the command of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in the Union's District of West Tennessee. However, due to bad roads Van Dorn failed to reach Corinth until a week after the Battle of Shiloh; in addition, Van Dorn brought all supplies he could, including the machinery and stores at the Little Rock arsenal, to northern Mississippi with him, and left few men behind. Divisions of the American Battlefield Trust: The American Battlefield Trust is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization. The primary goal of the Union Army in the west was to control the Mississippi River. 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