Heidelberg / Wiesbaden: Quelle & Meyer Vorlag. G. p. 8 Gegen Zahlung von fünf Reales preßten die Leute das Auge an das Fernrohr und sahen die Zigeunerin zum Greifen nahe. 117: On Translating Gunter Eichs Poem Ryoanji . Elemente einer Theorie der bilingualen Translation. "Ermes Marana dreamed of a literature made The only occasion when he had to interfere in the original text, was when the publisher had him concoct a family tree of the Buendía family that was to be added at the beginning of the English translation of the novel. Siting Translation. [ Links ], Rabassa, G. (1991). Google Scholar. 1st edition in the series Biblioteca de Literatura Colombiana. n.d. December 2009, Dallas, TX. Chicago: U Chicago P, 1989; On translating Günter Eich's poem 'Ryoanji' Middleton, Christopher; In The Craft of Translation. Think, for instance, of a simple expression such as English 'I am cold'. Often vernacularisms, proverbs and similar expression also imply metaphors. ix-x). The first is foolish, the second is silly. SWIFT J. Gulliver's Travels, 1726, in The Writings of Jonathan Swift, New York, Norton, 1973, ISBN 0-293-042839, p. 1-260. It requires peeling back the layers that contribute to the effect of language on the reader—not just feeling the effect, or even naming it, but naming the small, under-recognized factors that create it. In the case of Lagado's academics, the interpretive triangle formed by object, interpretant, sign in the prototext would share one vertex with the relative interpretive triangle of the metatext: the object vertex. In the Introduction by Rabassa, he clarifies his understanding of translation. London & New York: Routledge. At the end of the paper some conclusions will be drawn. Der Begriff der Äquivalenz in der Übersetzungswissenschaft. It was then that Rabassa put into practice his translation method: "I translated the book as I read it for the first time [...] This would become my usual technique with subsequent books" (ibid., p. 27). "The author who knows his language inside out" (8) is the first. 2 I have discussed elsewhere examples of how translation norms were applied in the translation of Gabriel García Márquez's Cien años de soledad (Bolaños 2010). If on a Winter's Night a Traveller, London, Random House, 1998, ISBN 0-749-39923-6. Sostengo que la mayoría de las posiciones de Rabassa sobre la traducción pueden explicarse y tienen vigencia en el marco de un enfoque moderno de la traducción. I am not concerned here with any possible textual transformation of an original text as representatives of the skopos theory would like translation studies to be involved with, but only with what can be called translation proper. As can be seen in the above quotation, the first translation strategy Rabassa mentions is to translate as one reads for the first time. Skopos and Commission in Translational Action. In other words, as long as the communicative purpose of the original is maintained equivalently in the target text, there is proper room for variation at the semantic and grammatical levels. If This Be Treason. Rabassa paid special attention to this translational aspect. —Iren Kiss, Mapping Literature: The Art and Politics of Translation . (ibid., p. 98), An immediate consequence of Rabassa's stance towards respecting the original and its comprehensibility for the TL readership is his advocacy of using what we would call a foreignizing strategy when translating apparently 'untranslatable' terms, i.e. Readings for Week 2: "Introduction" (P), The Craft of Translation, pp. Palabras clave: Gregory Rabassa, equivalencia traductora, resolución de problemas de traducción, ficcionalización, redes semánticas. No Two Snowflakes Blog “…translation is essentially the closest reading one can possibly give a text.” Gregory Rabassa — Translation Workshop UFRN . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1 – 12. The end justifies the means. One particular area of blindness that these two metaphors encourage is that toward the centrality of the lives, thoughts, and critiques of students, who are the most centrally poised to understand and to offer ways of thinking about teaching and learning. John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, eds. The fauna used in the original and recreated in the translation into English and into the other languages help to portray a place inhabited by typical birds of Colombian rain forest regions: (7) S. p. 13 José Arcadio Buendía construyó trampas y jaulas. In A. Ortony (Ed. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press. In French the captain's last name was not translated and, as its meaning is not transparent, an explanatory footnote was added (carnicero: boucher). Write an abstract of at least 200 words. Unlike numbers, words express not only an object meaning, but also the attitude of the speaker toward such object. We are faced with the same interpretive dilemma as the translator of the Aeneid as he starts off with Arma virumque cano. There is argument for the fact that it may be even more important here than in original writing, for in translation the one doing the writing must be both listener and speaker, and he could go astray in either direction. One Hundred Years of Solitude. Rabassa quotes the saying Â«Out of sight, out of mindÂ»5. With an Introduction by Gregory Rabassa. On being co-operative in Wonderland: Alice’s communicative competence.” (1991). This is achieved basically at the lexical level in as far as semantically related terms belonging to one single semantic network or field are recreated in the Target Language Text. This pre-eminence of the pragmatic nature of translation equivalence helps to understand the limitations of wrongly oriented theoretical approaches that still maintain, rather naively, that semantic meanings and grammatical structures should be kept identical in the translation process, thereby ignoring the complex relationship between thought and language, on the one hand, and the richness and diversity of expression means of the different languages of the world, on the other hand. “No Two Snowflakes are Alike: Translation as Metaphor.” The Craft of Translation. Abstract: In this article the author explores the educational process in which college sophomores enrolled in a reading and writing course are engaged. 81-85. Berkely: University of California Press. Gregory Rabassa se destaca por sus traducciones de escritores famosos latinoamericanos (García Márquez, Vargas Llosa, Clarice Lispector, Jorge Amado, etc.) Later today I … Menos conocidas son sus opiniones sobre la traducción. The key aspect to bear in mind here is that translation is an equivalent i.e. In Biguenet, John and Schulte, Rainer (eds.). September 15 -- no reading this week. The Politics of Translation. (Rabassa 1971/ 1987, p. 84). If García Márquez had wanted such a table he would have put one in the first Spanish edition. [Modern Translatology] [ Links ], Mounin, G. (1963). Translating is also undertaken by Rabassa as a problem solving activity. New York: A New Directions Book. These are the issues I intend to discuss in this paper, based on Gregory Rabassa's views on his prolonged professional activity as a multilingual (from Spanish and Portuguese into English) translator. You could use the following questions to get you started if you'd like: What particular passage/phrases struck you? John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, eds. SWIFT J. Gulliver's Travels, 1726, in The Writings of Jonathan Swift, New York, Norton, 1973, ISBN 0-293-042839, p. 1-260. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Ed. Bolaños, S. (2003). Numbers exist inasmuch as the relations between them exist, so we are not amazed at the fact that 9 Â¸ 3 is 3, since 3 + 3 + 3 is 9. Second, any intervention in the translation by the translator should be weighed against these boundaries. [ Links ], Vermeer, H. (2000). 54: Pleasures and Problems of Translation. The most important stylistic phenomena that could be perceived in the comparison between the original and the target languages texts is the use of what I have called 'fictionalizing strategy' i.e. While in our reality the two triangles face one another, and the only vertex they don't share, but have very close, is the sign vertex, through which pass, first the interpretive act and, then, the translation act. he is not only speaker but also listener of the translated text. They cannot be melded in his mind. Edificio Antonio Nariño, oficina 220. The final step is the present a solution: "I was convinced and I still am that Gabo meant it in the sense of one as this meaning is closer to the feel of the novel. On the other hand, Rabassa does not favor an overall interventionist translational strategy, i.e. The concept of equivalence as the defining feature of translation cannot be approached in mathematical terms. London & New York: Routledge. Translation is considered an artistic, creative act, not unlike writing a novel: the translator strives to transfer the meaning of the original text into another language very carefully, precisely and accurately. (pp. New York: First Perennial Classics edition. This has to do with the specifics of reading a text for translation purposes. E. p. 4 He spent several days as if he were bewitched, softly repeating to himself a string of fearful conjectures without giving credit to his own understanding. New York Times. A Dynamic Translation Model (DTM). John Biguenet and Rainer Schulte, eds. He is interested in finding out what lexical and syntactic choices have been made by the author of the original text and what specific communicative intention he had in mind at the time of writing. As far as the translation of One Hundred Years of Solitude is concerned, Rabassa (2005, p. 96) mentions some of the problems he faced and how he solved them. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989, p. 1-12. entirely of apocrypha, of false attributions, of Since we are used to thinking of an expression like 2 = 2 as correct, we do not realize that "the second 2 is obviously a hair younger than the first and therefore not its equal"2. Sieben Beiträge zu Theorie und Praxis des Übersetzens (pp. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. By Latin standards it could be (and is) both. Fictionalizing also turned out to be a special strategy Rabassa used in the translation of Cien años de soledad. [ Links ], Shveitser, A. D. (1988). 1: Poem 145 of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz. [ Links ], Venuti, L. (1995). Rabassa didn't take into account explicitly the role of the translation commissioner who can, in some instances, transform the purpose of the original. In the translation of Cien años de soledad into English, Rabassa seems to have received almost no instructions as to how he should translate. (Rabassa 1971/ 1987, p. 85). 1-12. A Model Revisited. The Ear in Translation. First, the translator's task is to re-create the original in the target language within the boundaries of what the original text actually says. [ Links ], Bolaños, S. (2008). This may correspond to a translational norm, according to which translators consider that the translation of a literary text should result in an 'actual' literary text. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. It is quite clear in Rabassa's statements that translational equivalence cannot be regarded in mathematical terms, a view I also share. Meyer-Clason solved the problem in the German translation by translating the captain's last name into its German equivalent Fleischer. However, he also has to abide by some boundaries given by 1) what is said in the original, 2) the intended effect on the target audience, 3) the instructions of the translation commissioner and 4) the translation norms in effect in the target community. Less known are his views on translating. Undoubtedly, "Out of sight, out of mind" could well mean that too, but the metaphor activated by the translator is not the same as that implied by the author, so, produces a serious communication problem. Rabassa, Gregory. No Two Snowflakes Are Alike: Translator as Metaphor. When I say that translation is a re-creation of an original message expressed in SLT, it does not mean that this recreation is totally free and arbitrary. 2. At first Rabassa thought it was a good idea, but then he changed his mind: Later on, after the book had come out, I had second thoughts. Rabassa's viewpoints will be illustrated whenever possible by using examples taken from his 1970 translation of Cien años de soledad, and other translations of this novel into French, German, Portuguese, and Russian. The translator is not free to do whatever he likes. Are translators cooperating in postcolonial and imperialistic agendas of the dominating social actors that happen to commission translations? Likewise, the original's communicative purpose, what the author wants to say, should always be the key translating parameter. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. More practice-oriented theories can be devised and, as a result, this can help to bridge the gap between mostly non-empirical based, speculative statements about the nature of translation and the reality of translators' actual performance. These two examples clearly illustrate the overall stylistic strategy used by Rabassa that consists in calquing the original Spanish term whenever it was possible: 'notion' ('noción'), 'navigate' ('navegar'), 'territories' ('territorios'), 'splendid' ('espléndido') (p. 81); 'conjectures' ('conjeturas'), 'giving credit to' ('dar crédito a'), instead of using alternative possibilities: 'idea', 'sail', 'regions', 'wonderful', and 'speculations' and 'believing', respectively. Köln: Kiepenheur & Witsch. One additional aspect that has a direct bearing on the translation process are the prevailing translation norms in the target community, which tell the translator how a translation should be performed e.g. E. p. 9 Since his house from the very first had been the best in the village, the others had been built in its image and likeness. Words Cannot Express ...The Translation of Cultures. This fact has also been highlighted by Russian translation scholars such as Federov, Shveitser, and Komissarov, among others, and by German authors from the Leipzig school, such as Kade and Jäger, as well as other modern representatives of this approach such as House, and Koller. 1-12 (p. 1); William Weaver, ‘The Process of Translation’, in The Craft of Translation, pp. Also I liked distant when used with time" (ibid., p. 97). [ Links ], Venuti, Lawrence (Ed.) Saint Petersburg: Simpozium. For instance, in the following example he maintains the religious allusion related to the origin of man by God, metaphorically transferred to the building of the houses in Macondo: (6) S. p. 13 Puesto que su casa fue desde el primer momento la mejor de la aldea, las otras fueron arregladas a su imagen y semejanza. The key aspect here is that decisions be made consistently in the whole translation process to ensure the high quality of the translation product. (1989). 1-12). The World of Translation. Most of the time, however, the translator has been left aside and neither his role in the translational process nor his ideas have been taken into proper consideration. Sticking with mathematical notions, what translation aims at is not the equals sign but, rather, the more useful one of approaches. Any required textual adjustments must be made at the lexical and syntactic levels taking into account the expressive means of the target language. Cem Anos de Solidão. P. p. 9 Quando José Arcadio Buendía e os quatro homens da sua expedição conseguiram desarticular a armadura, encontraram dentro um esqueleto calcificado que trazia pendurado no pescoço um relicário de cobre com um cacho de cabelo de mulher. Eds. MELUS: The Journal of the Society for the Study of the Multi-Ethnic Literature of the United States 16.2 (1990): 77-89. So our criterion must state that the best translation is the closest approach. Sobre la ética en la comunicación intercultural: el caso de la traducción. 1 Readers interested in the ethical issues related to postcolonial and poststructuralist translations theories may read "Sobre la ética en la comunicación intercultural: el caso de la traducción" (Bolaños, 2009). The World of Translation. (p. 1). This strategy would seem to contradict initial indications that appear in translation manuals for beginners. Oeuvres Complètes. Show details . If not, he had best return to the original urge of writing something of his own inspiration and bust out. For instance, commenting on the translation of Shakespeare's works, he claims that: It is obvious that the translator will have to take liberties with the text in order to preserve the spirit of what Shakespeare 'wants to say' [...] Therefore, when we translate a curse, we must look to the feelings behind it and not the word that go to make it up. This I consider an interventionist strategy by Rabassa as he intended to make the translation even more 'literary' than the original. Some of the key aspects of Rabassa's translational views are already expressed in The World of Translation, published by the PEN American Center in1971 (reprinted in 1987). [ Links ], Catford, J. C. (1965). However, respect of the original author's ideas does not mean literalness. In this paper I aim at presenting and discussing his viewpoints as to the definition of translation (with a key discussion of the concept of equivalence), the role of the translator (a model speaker-listener of the target text), and some of the translation strategies he applies in his translational work (original's pre-eminence, problem solving, foreignizing, fictionalizing, and semantic networking). No two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor. F. p. 12 Pendant quelques jours, il fut comme possédé, se répétant à lui-même et à voix basse un chapelet de présomptions épouvantables, sans vouloir prêter foi à ce que lui dictait son propre entendement. F. p. 10 Moyennant paiement de cinq réaux, les gens se plaçaient devant la lunette et pouvaient voir la gitane comme à portée de la main. P. p. 9 Mediante o pagamento de cinco reais, o povo se aproximava do óculo e via a cigana ao alcance da mão. [ Links ], Niranjana, T. (1992). ¿Cómo traducir? ), but I think was to has a better feeling to it. This means that it should be recognized that linguistic universals help to relate language to thought processes by verbalizing and categorizing the surrounding reality. (ibid., p. 3). In A. Neubert (Ed), Grundfragen der Übersetzungswissenschaft (pp. London: Oxford University Press. Translation theory has been largely characterized by the presentation and discussion of translation issues related to the process and the product of this intercultural and interlinguistic communicative activity. In other words, the fictionalizing strategy consists in the use of a more 'literary or 'colorful expression' in the Target Language Text that does not appear with that stylistic mark in the original. En poco tiempo llenó de turpiales, canarios, azulejos y petirrojos no sólo la propia casa, sino todas las de la aldea. This strategy has to do with the extent to which the stylistic peculiarities of the original have been respected and reproduced by the translators using the different stylistic resources available in their target languages. In J. Biguenet & R. Schulte (Eds. "No two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor." To sum up, I would say then that the translator plays an active and creative role in his translational activity. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record. Show details . This is a huge responsibility that is reflected on the different translation choices made by the translator throughout the target text. “Education As Translation: Students Transforming Notions of Narrative and Self.” CCC. [ Links ], Spivak, G. C. (2000). In W. Luis & J. Rodríguez-Luis (Eds. Like translation itself, studying translation requires slowing down to contemplate each word and phrase in a more active way than just reading. Towards an Integrated Translation Approach. He must have a good ear for what his author is saying and he must have a good ear for what he is saying himself. Another linguistic universal has to do with the fact that languages are organized in several linguistic forms used to express meanings and to perform actions by humans in communities. Poesías Completas. (pp. The third step consists in analyzing the different possible translational choices: There is no hint in the title as to which it should be in English. "No Two Snowflakes are Alike: Translation as Metaphor." [ Links ], Jäger, G. (1968). Also, there was no cavil on his part over the title in English" (ibid., p. 96). The Craft of Translation. [ Links ], All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Introduction The daily practices of translation show that translation is possible (Theo Hermans 2009:300). Therefore, any attempt is fruitless to force them into rigid formats of meaning, or to use pseudo-mathematic expedients in an attempt to say that "run = walk + fast". Genève: Labor et Fides. G. p. 16 (...) baute José Arcadio Buendia Fallen und Käfige. The title of our blog is taken from his essay “No Two Snowflakes are alike: Translation as Metaphor”, which will be the first reading of this semester. Only after that can you come to come to know it in the full sense. Leipzig: VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie. On the one hand, an overall communicative purpose can be identified according to the text type. In J. Biguenet & R. Schulte (Eds.). 4, völlig neu bearbeitete Auflage. (ibid, p. ix). F. p. 10 Quand José Arcadio Buendia et les quatre hommes de son expédition parvinrent à désarticuler l'armure, ils trouvèrent à l'intérieur un squelette calcifié qui portait à son cou un médaillon en cuivre contenant une mèche de cheveux de femme. What their role as translators is, and 3. About. A linguistic universal would say that languages around the world serve their purpose very well in helping humans to apprehend reality through several thought categories. Issues related to the role of translators in their activity have been recently discussed by such authors as Venuti (1995), Spivak (2000), and Niranjana (1992). Les problèmes théoriques de la traduction. [ Links ], García Márquez, G. (1970/2001). "The Immigrant or 'Outsider' Experience As Metaphor for Becoming an Educated Person in the Modern World: Mary Antin, Richard Wright, and Eva Hoffman." An attempt to translate it into Japanese through a computer program produced a sentence meaning approximately "Confined to an insane asylum". J. Biguenet and R. Schulte. [...] An Expedient was therefore offered, that since Words are only Names for. 1297, 1316 n.100 (1990). 117-124; and James S. Holmes, ‘Describing Literary Translations: Models and Methods’, in Translated! Translated by Claude et Carmen Durant. Welcome to the No Two Snowflakes Blog, dedicated to the late Gregory Rabassa, hero and guardian Angel of this site. G. p. 11 Einige Tage war er wie verhext und murmelte unablässig eine Litanei erstaunlicher Mutmaßungen vor sich hin, ohne der eigenen Einsicht Glauben zu schenken. Nineteen Ways of Looking at Wang Wei. In Rabassa's words: Unfortunately, there is no way we can preserve the grammatical structure of the original in a translation to show that this book was really written in Spanish or in Portuguese or whatever. (2000). The translator should also 'have a good ear for what he is saying himself' i.e. Translation theory, as I see it, should try to verify any theoretical assumptions by contrasting them against the translator's own assumptions and his professional practice. Culture as Text. P. p. 10 Esteve vários dias como que enfeitiçado, repetindo para si mesmo em voz baixa um rosário de assombrosas conjeturas, sem dar crédito ao próprio entendimento. This intriguing issue deserves a paper of its own and I have dealt with it elsewhere.1 For the time being and for the purposes of this paper it suffices to say that I would entertain the hypothesis that translators do play an active role in their professional activity to the extent that they apply, conscientiously or otherwise, their views on 1. Rabassa never names the interpretant, but the notion is implicitly present throughout the article. An opposite view to this is held by representatives of the so called 'skopos theory' (e.g. When you get to know something for the first time, you've discovered it. Readings for Week 3: Rabassa, "No Two Snowflakes Are Alike: Translation as Metaphor," The Craft of Translation, pp. What the author 'wants to say' is what I call the communicative purpose of the text. Rabassa's first work for a commercial publisher was the translation of Rayuela (Hopscotch) by Argentinian author Julio Cortázar: "When the translation came out it got a positive review on the front page of The New York Times Book Review by Donald Keene" (Rabassa 2005:28). [ Links ], Kade, O. Without fail we are presented with a set of utterances that contradict such presumed equivalence: "to run a risk", "to run for the election" etc. "A word is nothing but a metaphor for an object or, in some cases, for another word"3. The second step in translational problem solving is to describe the problem: "Cien is our first problem because in Spanish it bears no article so that the word can waver between one hundred and a hundred". (Rabassa, 1991, p. 42). Rabassa, Gregory. Em pouco tempo, encheu de corrupiões, canários, azulões e pintassilgos não só a própria casa, mas todas as da aldeia. Let's see an example of this foreignizing strategy applied to the translation of the proper name Carnicero (in italics and in bold type for comparison reasons) in the novel Cien años de soledad: (1) S. p. 106 El jefe del pelotón, especialista en ejecuciones sumarias, tenía un nombre que era mucho más que una casualidad: Roque Carnicero. In order to keep up with the almost-culturally-ingrained metaphors of the Spanish, ... “No Two Snowflakes Are Alike: Translation as Metaphor.” n.d. Valery, Paul. Of Solitude by using an overall interventionist no two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor strategy, i.e and Politics translation... Tropical fauna and flora by representatives of the so called 'skopos Theory ' ( Bolaños, S. ( 2009.... German translation Theory: Legacy and Relevance text. ” Gregory Rabassa, “ No Two Snowflakes Alike. Von fünf Reales preßten die Leute das Auge an das beste des Orts war, die! Seem to contradict initial indications that appear in translation, 1 – 12 the concept equivalence! Refrain from modifying arbitrarily the contents of this Journal, except where otherwise noted, no two snowflakes are alike: translation as metaphor licensed a....: the translation of Cien años de soledad, but I think was to a! Strategy in some translation problems of one Hundred Years of Solitude is twofold, and not with specifics. Using Mark in the Craft of translation, use Marcos ) appraised as successful model.. Article the author who knows his language inside out '' ( 8 ) is the result both of +! Evidently ironic because an author 's communicative intention is never transparent or obvious ( it be..., Übertragung, Annährung, Angleichung for the first time, you discovered! Problem is about is evidently ironic because an author 's ideas does not an... Did write about his views on the other hand, Rabassa, G. ( 1989 ) case! Respect the original author is saying himself ' i.e regarded from a modern translational/scientific.... Or controversial cold ' Traduttore, Traditore, the translator 's stance is valid. Not the equals sign but, rather, the second is silly ear for he... Such object application of this strategy would seem to contradict initial indications that appear in translation manuals beginners... You come to know something for the Study of the Aeneid as intended! Is in SLT SOBRE la ética en la comunicación intercultural: el caso de la Cruz show translation... '' Theories of translation 's stance towards the original author 's intention maintain! E gaiolas never names the interpretant, but also the attitude of the reasons why in. Of equivalence dreamed of a Literature made entirely of apocrypha, of imitations and counterfeits and ''. Notions, what translation aims at is not only speaker but also listener of the communicative purpose the! Die Leute das Auge an das beste des Orts war, wurden die nach..., Übertragung, Annährung, Angleichung, Artículo de investigación científica Ed ), also. Student voice of steps can be identified according to the original is a general translation strategy that needs to a. To solve problems ensures that a translator can do his work as and... Las de la aldea also 'have a good ear for what he is dealing with a translation thereby. Universidad Nacional de Colombia sbolanoc @ yahoo.com, Artículo de investigación científica transparent or obvious ( it would be produce. Writing course are engaged Describing literary translations: Models and Methods ’, in translated Traditore the. They can vary from none to very specific e.g 1: Poem of. The saying Â « out of mindÂ » 5 to an insane asylum '' translation strategies ) out... P. 96 ) through a computer program produced a sentence meaning approximately `` Confined to an insane asylum.... Zahlung von fünf Reales preßten die Leute das Auge an das beste des Orts war, die. Of imitations and counterfeits and pastiches '' 1 the student voice intention never! E. p. 10 José Arcadio Buendia Fallen und Käfige the decoding of the text type nothing of marathon men who! Strategy by Rabassa, G. C. ( 1965 ) seinem Vorbild gebaut a creative Commons Attribution.! The different translation choices made by the Russian translators by translating the captain 's name. Today I … No Two Snowflakes are Alike: translation as metaphor. able to state the!
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