Tom Hayden: Hayden died in 2016 at 76. Football fans and blood balloons: how Aaron Sorkin recreated the 1968 Chicago riots The Trial of the Chicago 7 protest scenes were … Hayden is depicted as a clean-cut anti-war activist who stands up when the judge walks into the courtroom (he reflexively forgets that the defendants all agreed to stay seated) and gets a haircut for his first day in court. “We were facing ten years in jail. Courtroom drawings of poet Allen Ginsberg and musician Country Joe McDonald at the Chicago Eight trial. Now that "The Trial of the Chicago 7" finally has been released, the writer and director told a National Press Club Headliners Virtual Newsmaker audience, it is unsettling to note parallels between what was happening in 1968 … The idea was tabled when both men had other projects in the works, but Sorkin wrote a draft in 2007. Seale had chosen lawyer Charles Garry to represent him in court, and because Garry needed gallbladder surgery, he asked Judge Hoffman to postpone the trial. However, after a jury failed to convict the Chicago Seven of conspiracy, the U.S. attorney in Chicago told Judge Hoffman that “it would be inappropriate to try Seale alone on a conspiracy charge,” and the judge dropped Seale’s charges. ), “It was a horrendous thing that occurred,” Froines says. The trial of the “Chicago Seven” became a defining event in public debates about the Vietnam War, Sharman says the media tended to emphasize moments like these because they were so unusual. He also served as director of a division of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration . Rennie Davis: Now 80, Davis founded the Foundation for a New Humanity, a Colorado-based project to develop a comprehensive plan for a new way of living. The country was in turmoil, reeling from the assassinations of Martin Luther King and Senator Robert Kennedy and the worsening Vietnam War. He also declared a mistrial in Seale’s case and removed him from the trial, turning the Chicago Eight into the Chicago Seven. None were convicted of conspiracy, and although five of them were convicted of inciting a riot, an appellate court dismissed the charges because it found that the judge had been biased against them. Judge Hoffman intended to try Seale separately for conspiracy in a new trial next year. Froines and Weiner were acquitted of all charges. Donald Clarke . "It was a watershed year," said Laurie Rubin, who photographed trial evidence. Fifty-two years later, the movie, like the trial itself, points to the power citizens can exert through protest in the face of authoritarian rule. From left, standing, are: Abbie Hoffman, John Froines, Lee Weiner, Dave Dellinger, Rennie Davis and Tom Hayden. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! On February 18, 1970, the jury acquitted all seven defendants of the conspiracy charges, but still convicted five of them—Davis, Dellinger, Hayden, Hoffman and Rubin—of individually crossing state lines to incite a riot. As it turns out, the events from this past summer share many parallels to 1968. A subsequent investigation and report concluded that the 1968 demonstration’s bloody turn was instigated by the police. “Had the government not brought them together at a conspiracy trial, I don’t think Hayden and Hoffman would have had much to do with each other,” says Gitlin. Dellinger wrote From Yale to Jail: The Life Story of a Moral Dissenter. But when thousands, many of them college students, arrived in Chicago, they were met by the forces of Democratic Mayor Richard Daley and his law-and-order machine—a tear-gas spraying, baton-wielding army of 12,000 Chicago police officers, 5,600 members of the Illinois National Guard and 5,000 U.S. Army soldiers. “[Sorkin] shows that Abbie is willing to sacrifice his life. They pledged to raise money to fund the Chicago Eight’s legal defense and encouraged readers to make donations. A subsequent investigation and report concluded that the 1968 demonstration’s bloody turn was instigated. He later became an unlikely spokesman for a teenage guru. Even Kunstler received a four-year sentence, in part for calling Hoffman’s courtroom a “medieval torture chamber.”, “There was a lot of electricity in the air,” recalls Charles Henry, professor emeritus of African American studies at the University of California, Berkeley, who attended the trial while in college. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. “It was like nothing could be done without the judge sort of stamping on them, so that sort of encouraged them to do it, I think.” By the end of the trial, the judge had charged all of the Chicago Eight as well as defense attorneys William Kunstler and Leonard Weinglass with contempt of court. Among other reasons, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit cited Judge Hoffman’s “antagonistic” courtroom demeanor. After the appeal, most of the Chicago Eight continued their activist work, with Rubin standing out as the infamous yippie who became a yuppie in the 1980s. “It has to tend to the rules of drama and filmmaking, so I’m thinking about the audience experience . David Dellinger: Dellinger died in 2004 at 88. Terms of Use On October 29, 1969, Bobby Seale, a co-founder of the Black Panther Party and one of eight co-defendants standing trial for inciting the riots that erupted at Chicago's 1968 Democratic National Convention, was gagged and chained to his chair for refusing to obey Judge Julius Hoffman’s contempt citations. The scene resembled a war zone, and it was broadcast into American homes via the nightly news. The trial arising from the “police riot” at the 1968 convention thrust him into the spotlight. Outraged at being falsely accused, Seale vociferously interrupted the proceeding, asking to represent himself and denouncing the judge as a “racist pig.” Hoffman, an irascible 74-year-old with blatant disdain for the defendants, ordered Seale restrained. David Dellinger (John Carroll Lynch)—literally a Boy Scout leader—was a pacifist and organizer for the Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (MOBE), which had been formed the previous year to plan large anti-war demonstrations. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/true-story-trial-chicago-7-180976063 “We’re seeing the demonization of protest right now, especially in the midst of this political campaign,” says Sorkin. [71] The 2010 documentary Phil Ochs: There but for Fortune features interviews with a variety of Ochs' associates, including Tom Hayden, Jerry Rubin, and Abbie Hoffman. It was inspiring to play someone so courageous.”. That said, the trial of the Chicago 7 reflected the era: the cultural and political clashes of the late ‘60s and a Nixonian view of the world as the first federal trial aimed at intimidating anti-war activists. All Rights Reserved. The 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago is most-remembered for what happened on the streets outside of it. The judge was not only politically hostile towards the defendants but, historians say, tone-deaf to what was happening in the country and seemingly unaware of the symbolism of chaining Seale to a chair in his courtroom. Jerry Rubin: Rubin went on to work on Wall Street and hosted networking events for young professionals in Manhattan. The image of a black man in shackles, rendered by courtroom artists because cameras weren’t allowed in the courtroom, was circulated by media around the world. They cooked up this indictment that made no sense,” he says. Anti-riot laws were all at the local or state level until the passage of the 1968 Civil Rights Act, which included a provision making it illegal to cross state lines to incite a riot. In The Trial of the Chicago 7, Sorkin intentionally opts for broad strokes to revisit the story of the trial and the surrounding events. The arrest of the eight defendants during the 1968 protests and the subsequent trial were part of the federal government’s efforts to punish leftists and organizers of the anti-war movement. At one point, Judge Hoffman even prevented former attorney general Ramsey Clark from testifying in front of the jury in favor of the defense, arguing that Clark had nothing useful to say. Underneath, they were wearing Chicago police uniforms. A leader in America’s civil rights and antiwar movements, he moved into mainstream politics and served in the California State Assembly for a decade and the California State Senate for eight years. “The effect of this ‘anti-riot’ act is to subvert the first Amendment guarantee of free assembly by equating organized political protest with organized violence,” it read. On one occasion which, of course, is included in the movie, the two yippies arrive in court wearing judicial robes, which they removed on the judge’s orders to reveal blue policeman’s uniforms underneath. He pored over the original transcripts, read numerous books on the trial and the politics of the ’60s and spent time with Hayden (who died in 2016) as part of his writing process. The trial took place in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Illinois and lasted five months, from September 24, 1969, to February 18, 1970. These police and military forces violently clashed with Vietnam War protesters, resulting in hundreds of injuries and 668 arrests during the four-day convention. For the sake of good storytelling, some timelines are rearranged, relationships are changed and fictional characters are added (a Sorkin-invented female undercover cop lures Jerry Rubin, for example). Seale (Yahya Abdul-Mateen II) was head of the Chicago Panthers, which leaned towards more militant methods. The trial of the Chicago 7 was a court case that concerned the antiwar protests and rioting surrounding the 1968 Democratic National Convention, which was held in Chicago. “One day in Grant Park somebody took down a flag and the police used that as an excuse to go through the crowd beating people with nightsticks,” recalls John Froines, who helped organize the DNC anti-war demonstrations with Rennie Davis of the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam. “It was very intense, yet no one ever forgot that we were there for one reason only: our opposition to the war in Vietnam. Courtroom drawing of Bobby Seale bound and gagged during the trial, by Franklin McMahon. You will get the essence of these real-life people and the kernel of who they are as human beings, not the historical facts. Mitchell—who was later convicted for his role in the Watergate conspiracy—was much more receptive to Daley, and decided to prosecute the Chicago Eight under the new federal anti-riot law. Director Aaron Sorkin is hopping back on the political drama train with Netflix's The Trial of the Chicago 7. But the wheels of justice turned, and in 1972, all charges against the defendants were dropped. During the trial, the defendants argued that the anti-war demonstrations had been peaceful, and that the violence was instigated by the police. image of a black man in shackles, rendered by courtroom artists, Amateur Treasure Hunter Finds Trove of 1,000-Year-Old Viking Jewelry, Archaeologists Discover 12th-Century Bathhouse Hidden in Spanish Tapas Bar, The Pitfalls and Promise of America's Founding Myths, The Once-Classified Tale of Juanita Moody: The Women Who Helped Avert a Nuclear War. He resides in Connecticut. Charges against Seale were also dropped. Continue Two years later, an appellate court threw out all of the convictions and the sentences Judge Hoffman had handed down—including Seale’s four years for contempt—citing the fact that the judge had been obviously biased against the defendants. The oldest of the Chicago defendants by 20 years, he was a leading antiwar organizer in the 1960s. Fifteen years ago, Aaron Sorkin began laying the groundwork for a film based on one of the most compelling legal showdowns of the late 1960s. The next year, Richard Nixon took office and appointed John Mitchell as the new attorney general. Jeanne Dorin McDowell is a Los Angeles-based journalist and editor. “Nixon was throwing down a marker in order to intimidate the entire anti-war movement. ), This unforgettable scene is recreated in Netflix’ upcoming courtroom drama The Trial of the Chicago 7, which starts streaming on October 16—52 years after the real proceedings unfolded in downtown Chicago. Photo: Niko Tavernise/Netflix. He soon grew tired of politics and turned to writing, producing A Lonely Rage in 1978 and a cookbook titled Barbeque'n with Bobby in 1987. Here, we explore the true story that inspired Aaron Sorkin's 'The Trial of the Chicago 7,' which happened after the protests and riots at the 1968 … Abbie Hoffman: After spending years underground, Hoffman resurfaced in 1980, lectured at colleges and worked as a comedian and community organizer, He died in 1989 at 52 from a self-inflicted overdose of barbituates due to manic depression. [72] Through carefully crafted production, the film blurs the lines between 1968 and 2020, rightfully so. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Lee Weiner: Now 81, Weiner recently wrote Conspiracy to Riot: The Life and Times of One of the Chicago 7, a memoir about the1968 Democratic National Convention. “It got a lot of attention, and should have.”. The letter was signed by 19 people, including Noam Chomsky, Susan Sontag, Benjamin Spock, Judy Collins and Norman Mailer (Collins and Mailer would also testify at the trial). “At the time, we were very cynical about the Democrats. And having five people found guilty and two people being acquitted—I cried at that.”. The Days of Rage riots erupted on October 11, 1969, to protest the trial of several people charged with conspiring to incite riots during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in … The seven defendants and their attorneys also received prison sentences for the more than 170 contempt citations levelled at them by Judge Hoffman—which ranged from two-and-a-half months (for Weiner) to four years and 18 days (for Kuntsler). Massachusetts)—is a pot-smoking hippie who wears his politics on the tip of his tongue. “He thought that there was more evidence against the police, who had violated the civil rights of the protesters in Chicago.”. Hayden married three times, but his most high-profile union was to actress and fellow activist Jane Fonda for 17 years. “What becomes clear is that in the end, Abbie is willing to challenge the injustice of the time,” says Cohen. With the tumult of the 2016 election, Sorkin was re-inspired to examine the story of defiant activists willing to stand up for their political beliefs. Over 100 major U.S. cities experienced disturbances, resulting in roughly $50 million in damage. Judge Hoffman (no relation to Abbie) was so angry that he continuously cited contempt. In 1973, Seale ran for mayor of Oakland, California, and came in second out of nine candidates. The trial of political activists accused of inciting riots during the Democratic National Convention of 1968 attracted national attention and exposed the depths of political and cultural divisions at a crucial moment in the nation’s history. The others were Bobby Seale, co-founder of the Black Panther Party; David Dellinger, a longtime anti-war activist; Tom Hayden, cofounder of Students for a Democratic Society; Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, founders of the Youth International Party (whose members were called “yippies”); and Lee Weiner, who had volunteered as a marshal for the DNC demonstrations to help with crowd control. It was one of the most shocking scenes to ever take place in an American courtroom. From the day the trial began on September 24, 1969, it captivated the media. “Potentially, this law is the foundation for a police state in America.”. We put the government on trial.”. Fifty years ago, the trial raised questions about the First Amendment and exposed a culture clash in America. McDonald tried to sing the anti-war song in court, and when the judge forbid it, he recited the lyrics out loud. They represented different factions of “the movement” and had distinctly different styles, strategies and political agendas. The 1968 Chicago riots, in the United States, were sparked in part by the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. In the movie, the tension between the two men is palpable yet understandable given their stylistic differences. The drama and histrionics in the courtroom were reflected in daily headlines. Five of them —Davis, Dellinger, Hayden, Hoffman and Rubin—were convicted of crossing state lines with the intent to riot. Privacy Statement The protests turned to bloodshed. “Rennie Davis and I were hit on the head with night sticks.”. Give a Gift. The True Story Of The Chicago 7 Trial That Shocked 1960s America Learn the history behind the trial of the Chicago 7 and how defendants like Abbie Hoffman and Bobby Seale protested the Vietnam War during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. In the years after the trial, Weiner worked for the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith in New York and participated in protests for Russian Jews and more funding for AIDS research He also worked as a vice president for direct response at the AmeriCares Foundation. Froines, who is now a professor emeritus of the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, wasn’t arrested that day. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. President Lyndon Johnson, beleaguered and defeated by the war, had made the unprecedented decision not to seek a second term; after Kennedy’s death, Vice President Hubert Humphrey stood as the heir to the presidential nomination. John Froines: At 81, Froines is professor emeritus at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health with a specialty in chemistry, including exposure assessment, industrial hygiene and toxicology. Protesters outside the courthouse each day chanted the iconic mantra: “The whole world is watching!”. On the first day, Hayden gave a fist salute to the jury. The two lawyers representing the defendants, William Kunstler (Mark Rylance) and Leonard Weinglass (Ben Shenkman), were renowned civil rights attorneys. From the beginning, many observers found Judge Julius Hoffman to be far short of impartial toward the defendants. According to Gitlin, once Nixon became President in 1969, his Justice Department formed a special unit to orchestrate a series of indictments and trials. “I interviewed [Clark] and he said he saw there was no evidence to try the defendants,” says Nick Sharman, a researcher at the University of Melbourne and author of The Chicago Conspiracy Trial and the Press. Seale in turn rejected the court-appointed lawyer and asserted his right to defend himself. During the trial, yippies Hoffman and Rubin sometimes used unusual tactics to draw attention to their arguments. Because the Chicago Eight had begun referring to themselves as “The Conspiracy,” the 19 signers dubbed themselves the Committee to Defend the Conspiracy. At the time, a lot of prominent writers and performers were involved with the anti-war movement, and the witness list reflected this. He wants to work within the system and shows his disdain for Rubin and Hoffman. To its credit, the movie includes, if only suggests, some of these undercurrents. He died in 1994 at 56 after he was hit by a car near his Brentwood, California, home. To make this point, the defense called over 100 witnesses, many of whom had been in Chicago during the protests. In shaping his portrayal, Cohen says he came to believe that despite his theatrics, Hoffman was a serious activist. Among other reasons, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit cited Judge Hoffman’s “antagonistic” courtroom demeanor. (The incident inspired the Graham Nash song “Chicago” released a year and a half later. Written and directed by Aaron Sorkin (The Social Network, A Few Good Men), the movie dramatizes the infamous, at times farcical, trial of eight men accused by President Nixon’s Justice Department of criminal conspiracy and crossing state lines to incite a riot. Dragging on for almost five months—at times devolving into chaos and political theater—the trial illuminated the deepening schisms in a country torn apart by the Vietnam War, tectonic cultural shifts and attempts by the Nixon Administration to quash peaceful antiwar dissent and protest. Kunstler’s defense strategy was one of disruption, and it worked. Portrait of the Chicago Seven and their lawyers as they raise their fists in unison outside the courthouse where they were on trial for conspiracy and inciting a riot during the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, 1969. Smithsonian Institution. At the trial 12 months later, the eight defendants remained united in their opposition to the war in Vietnam, but they were far from a homogenous coalition. The evidence against the Chicago Eight, as they became known, was always slim. How could this happen? On February 18, 1970, the seven defendants were acquitted of conspiracy charges but fined $5,000 each. “it would be inappropriate to try Seale alone on a conspiracy charge,”. Sorkin takes some dramatic license is in his depiction of the emotional engine that drives the story: the relationship between Hayden and Hoffman. Hollywood routinely tackles movies about real-life events, but dramatic storytelling and historical accuracy don’t always mix. Three months before the Chicago Eight trial began, a group of prominent writers and thinkers published a letter to the editors of The New York Review of Booksarguing that the Based on a true story, the period film follows the infamous case of … Hoffman and Rubin pretty much spent the next four-and-a-half months at the defendants table turning the trial into political theater. There were no cameras allowed in the courtroom, but newspapers printed the shocking sketches of Seale bound and gagged in court. From a left-wing point of view, the conflict between the “revolutionaries” and the Chicago establishment was a straightforward story of good vs. evil. This has to be appealed.’”. Keep up-to-date on: © 2021 Smithsonian Magazine. We would get 30 death threats a day while on trial,” recalls Davis, who jokes that he wasn’t as nerdy as he is portrayed in the movie. The following year, the new Government of Richard Nixon – thanks to a hardline attorney general and a new administration keen to demonstrate its ‘law and order’ credentials – rounded up a smorgasbord of protestors and charged them with crossing state lines to incite a riot. Franklin McMahon/Chicago History Museum/Getty Images. Netflix's 'The Trial of Chicago 7' tells the story of a protest at the 1968 Democratic National Convention that turned into a fight with police and the Nation Guard. Rioting and looting followed, with people flooding out onto the streets of major cities. After violence erupted at the Chicago DNC, Mayor Daley wanted the government to prosecute some of the demonstrators under the new act. “Before a film can be anything else—relevant or persuasive or important—it has to be good,” says Sorkin. Former Black Panther chairman Bobby Seale speaking with press during the Chicago Eight trial. 'The Trial of the Chicago 7' production designer Shane Valentino breaks down his biggest challenges on the set of Aaron Sorkin's drama. Can You Spread Covid-19 After Getting Vaccinated? Married, he lives in Boerthoud, Colorado and also does personal growth coaching. Professors John Froines and Lee Weiner (Danny Flaherty and Noah Robbins), who were only peripherally involved in planning the Chicago demonstrations (sitting at the defense table, one of them likens their presence to the Academy Awards. He makes no claims of hewing exactly to the true history, explaining that the movie is meant to be a “painting” rather than a “photograph”— an impressionistic exploration of what really happened. Construction at Israeli Safari Park Unearths 1,800-Year-Old Sarcophagi, 17,000-Year-Old Kangaroo Painting Is Oldest Known Australian Rock Art, Rare Yellow Penguin Photographed for the First Time, Archaeologists Unearth Egyptian Queen's Tomb, 13-Foot 'Book of the Dead' Scroll, Why Scientists Are Starting to Care About Cultures That Talk to Whales, The True History Behind Netflix's 'The Dig' and Sutton Hoo, Scientists Extract DNA From Seabiscuit's Hooves To Figure Out How He Was So Fast, A Potato Battery Can Light Up a Room For Over a Month, Meet Joseph Rainey, the First Black Congressman, The State of American Craft Has Never Been Stronger. The Chicago Seven defendants hold a news conference in Chicago, Ill., during their 1969 trial on charges of conspiracy to riot at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. California Do Not Sell My Info “His whole face was basically covered with a pressure band-aid, but he could still be heard through it trying to talk to the jury,” recalls Rennie Davis, a co-defendant in what became known as the Chicago 8 trial (later Chicago 7 when Seale was legally severed from the group and was tried separately. 17th Annual Photo Contest Finalists Announced. It even heard testimony from Country Joe McDonald, a musician newly famous for singing the “I-Feel-Like-I’m-Fixin’-to-Die Rag” at Woodstock just a month before the trial began. “The Trial of the Chicago 7,” written by acclaimed screenwriter, Aaron Sorkin, tells the true story of the 8 men put on trial for inciting violence during the 1968 Chicago riots that followed the assassinations of JFK, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Robert Kennedy. The author of 17 books, he was also director of the Peace and Justice Resource Center in Los Angeles County. In the courtroom, both the cinematic and the real-life versions, the defendants exhibited solidarity. We wanted to give up the illusion of change through the existing electoral system.”. This time around he would also direct. ‘The Trial of the Chicago 7’. In the fall of 1967, members of the National Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam (often referred to as "MOBE"), which was directed by David Dellinger, proposed a massive anti-war demonstration to coincide with the 1968 Democratic National Convention.In early 1968, the National Mobilization Committee opened a Chicago office directed by Rennie Davis and Tom … Everyone (including the lawyers) already had prison sentences for contempt of court; and in addition to this, Judge Hoffman sentenced the five convicted men to five years in prison and gave each a $5,000 fine. Tom Hayden (Eddie Redmayne) and Davis (Alex Sharp), founders of SDS, lead a campus coalition of 150 organizations bent on changing the system and ending the war. Within the movement, however, the yippies were regarded as political lightweights, adept at public relations and little else, according to Todd Gitlin, a Columbia University journalism and sociology professor who served as president of SDS in 1963 and 64. T he 1968–1970 trial of the Chicago Seven seemed from the outset a made-for-TV farce, and the hippies who followed the trial closely quickly saw its theatrical promise. Soon riots began, primarily in black urban areas. Organizers were planning a non-violent demonstration. Sorkin’s introduction to the Chicago 7 began more than a decade ago when director Steven Spielberg contacted him to talk about a movie on the trial. or The Trial of the Chicago 7: Plodding and pedantic reading of the 1968 riots Review: The film fails to engage with the radicalism of Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin. “What I remember most vividly were Kunstler and Weinglass, who were doing the talking for the defense at the time, getting up a couple of times and before they could get a word out of their mouths [Judge] Hoffman overruled. But the wheels of justice turned, and in 1972, all charges against the defendants were dropped. The Trial of the Chicago 7 is the latest movie directed by Aaron Sorkin, with a scheduled release date in mid-October. The four members who survived to see the trial’s 50th anniversary in 2019 are John Froines, Rennie Davis, Bobby Seale and Lee Weiner. In one instance, they showed up to court wearing judicial robes to protest Judge Julius Hoffman’s decision to revoke Dellinger’s bail. The organizers were charged with conspiracy to incite a riot and what followed was one of the most notorious trials in … (L-R) Lawyer Leonard Weinglass, Rennie Davis, Abbie Hoffman, Lee Weiner, David Dellinger, John Froines, Jerry Rubin, Tom Hayden, and lawyer William Kunstler. Clearly, Sorkin sides with the protestors, but overall, The Trial of the Chicago 7 is a mostly accurate and entertaining account of a court case that encapsulated two opposing sides of … Get the best of Smithsonian magazine by email. Seale hadn’t been involved in organizing the anti-Vietnam War demonstration, which began peacefully before turning into a bloody confrontation with police that resulted in nearly 700 arrests. But the Democratic Party was as divided as the rest of the nation: The antiwar contingent opposed Humphrey, while Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy appealed to students and activists on the left. You will get the essence of these real-life people and the kernel of who they are as human beings, not the historical facts.”. But a year later, the U.S. government accused him, Davis and six other men of conspiring to incite a riot at the DNC. Arising from the beginning, many observers found judge Julius Hoffman to be good, ” Froines.... His disdain for Rubin and Hoffman sparked in part by the police who. If only suggests, some of these undercurrents Mitchell as the new general. Mayor Daley wanted the government to prosecute some of the emotional engine that drives story. Martin Luther King Jr justice Resource Center in Los Angeles County judge denied the request and assigned Seale new. 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