"[82], Various law reforms were also carried out by Attlee's government. [90] In recent years, there has been a historiographical debate on whether such a consensus ever existed.[91]. What was missing was any serious concern about the Attlee government’s foreign, defence and colonial policies, about what can be usefully described as its imperial strategy. [86] The concept claims there was a widespread consensus that covered support for coherent package of policies that were developed in the 1930s, promised during the Second World War, and enacted under Attlee. Clement Attlee - Prime Minister - Domestic Policy - The Economy. Clement Attlee has to be classed as the FINEST peacetime Prime Minister our country has ever had . War pensions and allowances (for both World Wars) were increased by an Act of 1946 which gave the wounded man with an allowance for his wife and children if he married after he had been wounded, thereby removing a grievance of more than twenty years standing. The coalition government during the war, headed by Churchill and Attlee, signed off on a series of white papers that promised Britain a much improved welfare state. In order to make a difference in the local politics he joined the Independent Labour Party. Until the 1980s, historians generally agreed on the existence and importance of the consensus. Clement attlee, was born on January 3, 1883, in London, into a middle-class family. Initially conservative in his political … [55], By late 1946, agreed standards of training were established, which was followed by the opening of a training headquarters and the opening of an additional nine training centres in Wales, Scotland, and then nationwide throughout Great Britain. The Labour Party under him registered a landslide victory in the general elections after the World War II and he became the Prime Minister. In 1979 newly elected Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher rejected and reversed it. The most notable of the few female members of the government was Ellen Wilkinson, who was Minister of Education until her early death in 1947. Between 1945 and 1951, the Labour Government passed a series of measures which became known as … "The 1945 general election reconsidered". However, there was no money for investment to modernise these industries, and there was no effort made to turn control over to union members. This was a publicly funded healthcare system, which offered treatment for all, regardless of income, free of charge at the point of use. Lansbury resigned in 1935 and Attlee became the interim leader before the 1935 elections. Clement Attlee married Violet Millar on January 10, 1922 and together they had four children, namely, Lady Janet Helen, Lady Felicity Ann, Martin Richard and Lady Alison Elizabeth. Thus, he joined the Independent Labour Party in 1908 in order to become actively involved in the country’s politics. In 1927, he became one of the members of the Simon Commission but found no ministerial post in the Second Labour Government. Altogether, these policies provided public-sector housing with its biggest ever boost up until that point, while low-wage earners particularly benefited from these developments. [76] Improvements were also made in farmworkers' wages,[39] and the Agricultural Wages Board in 1948 not only safeguarded wage levels, but also ensured that workers were provided with accommodation. Clement Attlee and Aneurin Bevan in 1954 (Image: Getty) Attlee made an unlikely revolutionary – an ex-public schoolboy who had seen active service in the ill … Clement Attlee wurde in Putney, London, als Sohn einer Familie der britischen Mittelklasse geboren. This concise thematic biography explores his life and achievement. "[80] while the Pottery (Health and Welfare) Special Regulations of 1950 made provision for the health and safety of workers employed in factories "in which there is carried on the manufacture or decoration of pottery or certain allied manufactures or processes. He assumed office on 26 July 1945 and in the next three years the government passed over 200 public Acts of Parliament. [3] Just twenty months after that election, Attlee called a new election for 25 October 1951 in an attempt to gain a larger majority, but was narrowly defeated by the Conservative Party. This was insufficient to govern however, due to the Bevanite split causing tensions in the party. John Bew, paints a picture of a great but humble man, a man who re- built our country from the ashes of the 2nd.world war,when the United Kingdom was flat broke. Many people in Britain consider him one of the nation'… [24], The New Towns Act of 1946 set up development corporations to construct new towns, while the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947 instructed county councils to prepare development plans and also provided compulsory purchase powers. Prime Ministers, political ideology: Political party - Labour, Spouse/Ex-: Countess Attlee, Violet Attlee, children: 2nd Earl Attlee, Alison Elizabeth Attlee, Janet Helen Attlee, Lady Felicity Ann Attlee, Martin Attlee, education: Haileybury and Imperial Service College, 1904 - University College, Oxford,, University of Oxford, Quotes By Clement Attlee | It gave independence to India, Pakistan, Ceylon and Burma and moved to strengthen the British Commonwealth. The Labour Party had won a landslide victory at the 1945 general election, and went on to enact policies of what became known as the post-war consensus, including the establishment of the welfare state and the nationalisation of some industries. More council housing was built, and plans were made through the New Towns Act 1946 for the growth of suburbs, and to reduce overcrowding in major cities such as London and Glasgow. Every P.M. since 1951 is left trailing in his shadow, John Bew has produced a classic with this one. "[78], The Magnesium (Grinding of Castings and Other Articles) (Special Regulations) Order of December 1946 contained special measures "respecting the maintenance of plant and apparatus; precautions against causing sparks; the interception and removal of dust; automatic operation of appliances; protective clothing; and prohibition of smoking, open lights and fires. It eagerly joined the Marshall Plan in 1948. [51], The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act of 1950 amended an Act of 1885 to bring prostitutes within the law and safeguard them from abduction and abuse. In 1950 he readily accepted the need for Allied entry in the Korean War and for a new rearmament program. After the war he came back to the London School and held his position till 1923. In the pit villages of Yorkshire, the infant mortality rate was 250 in … Clement Attlee received his schooling from Northaw School and then went to the Haileybury College. Yet Churchill always denied those quotes were his, saying: “Mr Attlee is an honourable and gallant gentleman, and a faithful colleague who served his country well at the time of her greatest need. "[80], The Building (Safety, Health & Welfare) Regulations of 1948 required that measures should be taken to minimise exposure to potentially harmful dust or fumes,[81] while the Pottery (Health) Special Regulations (1947) prohibited the use "except in the manufacture of glazed tiles" of all "but leadless or low solubility glazes and prescribe certain processes in which ground or powdered flint or quartz are not to be employed. In November, he retired as the Leader of the Labour Party and was succeeded by Hugh Gaitskell. Gilbert Walker, "The Transport Act 1947". There he witnessed the terrible living standards of the slum children which deeply affected his political views. [31] Numerous lesser reforms were also introduced, some of which were of great benefit to certain segments of British society, such as the mentally deficient and the blind. [54], In 1946, the government set up a National Institute of Houseworkers as a means of providing a socially democratic variety of domestic service. "[40] In 1951, a comforts allowance was introduced that was automatically paid to war pensioners "receiving unemployability supplement and constant attendance allowance. Clement Attlee was invited by King George VI to form the Attlee ministry in the United Kingdom in July 1945,[1] succeeding Winston Churchill as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. During his bid for the party leadership in 2010, Ed Miliband named Clement Attlee as the politician he most admired – something he repeated in an interview in June this year. Britain. Clement Attlee received the Order of the Garter, the Order of Merit and the Order of the Companions of Honour. In 1904, he graduated from University College, Oxford, with a Second Class Honors BA in Modern History. Clement Attlee Achievements. [69] This scheme gave registered dockers the legal right to minimum work and decent conditions. Clement Richard Attlee, 1. Description: Marking the 75th anniversary of Clement Attlee becoming Prime Minister with a Labour landslide in 1945, we remember the achievements of that government with three exclusive posters designed by Labour. [89] Historian Angus Calder complained bitterly that the post-war reforms were an inadequate reward for the wartime sacrifices, and a cynical betrayal of the people's hope for a more just post-war society. He became the Member of Parliament from Limehouse after the 1922 general elections and also served as Ramsay MacDonald’s parliamentary private secretary in the brief 1922 parliament. [6][7][8] Two laws written by the Conservatives during the war were expanded, the Family Allowances Act 1945 and the Education Act 1944. The media has made many comparisons between Blair and Clement Attlee, leader of the 1945-51 Labour government. Williamson, Adrian. But self-evidently it was not an unalloyed triumph. The legislation also required a lunch break of at least 45 minutes for anyone for worked between 11:30am and 2:30pm, and a half-hour tea break for anyone working between 4pm and 7pm. Apart from the question of nationalisation of some industries, these policies were broadly accepted by the three major parties, as well as by industry, the financial community and the labour movement. The council also appointed visitors and sanitary inspectors and dealt with the rising issue of infant mortality. The Prime Minister is by no means bound to include the members of the Shadow Cabinet in his Cabinet, or even in the Government. [68], The Trades Disputes Act 1927 was repealed, and a Dock Labour Scheme was introduced in 1947 to put an end to the casual system of hiring labour in the docks. [9], In foreign affairs, the government was active in the United Nations and negotiated a $5,000,000,000 loan from the United States and Canada in 1946. He served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and the leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. The National Assistance Act 1948 provided a safety net for anyone not otherwise covered. After the war, the promises included the National Health Service, and expansion of education, housing, and a number of welfare programmes. [46] Under the National Assistance Act of 1948, local authorities had a duty "to provide emergency temporary accommodation for families which become homeless through no fault of their own. [87] In recent years the validity of the interpretation has been debated by historians. India was certainly entitled to independence, and I don't know if it could have been achieved with less violence. [27], In the field of health care, funds were allocated to modernisation and extension schemes aimed at improving administrative efficiency. [24], A number of reforms were embarked upon to improve conditions for women and children. Additionally, Attlee oversaw the beginning of the dismantling of the British Empire, granting independence to India in 1947. However, in the October 1951 general elections the Conservatives returned to power under Winston Churchill. He toured Essex and Somerset on a bicycle, explaining Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George's National Insurance Act at public meetings.. Another general election was called in 1951 to try and increase their majority. He served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951 and the leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. A strong chain of regional offices was set up within its planning ministry to provide a strong lead in regional development policies. It took an active role in joining the United States in the Cold War and forming NATO. His influence was widespread as he was responsible for the welfare and the coalition that helped stop Stalin in his tracks during the Cold War. [55], The Fire Services Act 1947 introduced a new pension scheme for firefighters,[64] while the Electricity Act 1947 introduced better retirement benefits for workers in that industry. Strong planning authorities were set up to control land use, and issued manuals of guidance which stressed the importance of safeguarding agricultural land. [34] In 1949, unemployment, sickness and maternity benefits were exempted from taxation. Empfohlen; Beliebt; Neueste „There is no such thing as the Shadow Cabinet. After a landslide election victory in 1945, the administration led by Clement Attlee presided over a series of far-reaching changes, including the introduction of the Welfare State. Millions of people died in the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan. Attlee noted in As it Happened that a Colonel Vigne, with whom he played bridge as he sailed to Gallipoli, branded him a “damned democratic, socialist, tub-thumping rascal”. Labour was to remain out of office for the next thirteen years, until 1964, when Harold Wilson became Prime Minister. In this period he became Britain’s first ever Deputy Prime Minister in 1942 and then also held the positions of Dominions Secretary and the Lord President of the Council. The Labour Party came to power in the United Kingdom after its unexpected victory in the July 1945 general election. – 1967. október 8.) Indeed, the Attlee government’s true sign of greatness is that rather than succumbing to adverse circumstances, it capitalised on them. Ihm reichte es nicht, gute Werke für die … William A. Robson, "Nationalised industries in Britain and France". Seventy-five years ago this week, Clement Attlee became prime minister of the most radical government in British history. He studied at the University of Oxford and trained as a lawyer. After witnessing the poverty and misery prevailing in the society, he became more inclined towards Socialism. In the 1924 first Labor government led by Ramsay MacDonald he served as the Under-Secretary of State for War. [5] The Attlee government nationalised about 20% of the economy, including coal, railways, road transport, the Bank of England, civil aviation, electricity and gas, and steel. Party leader Clement Attlee became Prime Minister replacing Winston Churchill in late July. Through the National Dock Labour Board (on which trade unions and employers had equal representation) the unions acquired control over recruitment and dismissal. Attlee’s government was a key architect of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) of 1949. Juli: Nach dem Wahlsieg der Labour Party … The most significant problem facing Attlee and his ministers remained the economy, as the war effort had left Britain nearly bankrupt. Such achievements are all the more remarkable when you consider that austerity-era Britain was bankrupted by war and immediately faced a new and dangerous enemy in the Soviet Union. 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