A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. For example, in the Codex Mendoza we see him playing with the moon-god, and can recognize him by the sign ollin which accompanies him, and by the gouged-out eye in which that symbol ends. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, known by no other name than Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth. [10] Xolos served as companions to the Aztecs in this life and also in the after-life, as many dog remains and dog sculptures have been found in Aztec burials, including some at the main temple in Tenochtitlan. Quetzalcoatl as the morning star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's rising (rebirth) every dawn , Xolotl as the evening star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's setting (death) every dusk . In the 17th century, Ixtlilxóchitl, a descendant of Aztec royalty and historian of the Nahua people, wrote, "Quetzalcoatl, in its literal sense, means 'serpent of precious feathers', but in the allegorical sense, 'wisest of men'." Quetzalcoatl /ˌkɛtsælkoʊˈɑːtəl/ is a deity in Aztec culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". [8], A close relationship between Xolotl and Nanahuatzin exists. Xolotl is the evening star, a counterpart of Quetzalcoatl, the morning star. Quetzalcoatl's name can also be translated as "precious twin," and in some myths, he had a twin brother named Xolotl, who had a human body and the head of a dog or of an ocelot, a spotted wildcat. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of wind, air, and learning, wears around his neck the "wind breastplate" ehēcacōzcatl, "the spirally voluted wind jewel" made of a conch shell. Every night, I lead the Sun down to Mictlan to die. He is the dark personification of Venus, the evening star, and was associated with heavenly fire. Xolotl is frequently paired with Quetzalcoatl in various myths, whether as his twin or as his canine companion. He finds further evidence of the association between Xolotl, dogs, death, and Mictlan in the fact that Mesoamericans viewed twins as unnatural monstrosities and consequently commonly killed one of the two twins shortly after birth. Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent". Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl's ally Tlaloc (the god of rain), and Quetzalcoatl's twin and psychopomp, Xolotl. In typical Mesoamerican duality, Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli was imagined as both and as the twin brother of Xolotl, and thus, above all, he represented the morning star … His birth, along with his twin Xolotl, was unusual; it was a virgin birth, to the goddess Coatlicue. [12] This is one of many native dog breeds in the Americas and it is often confused with the Peruvian Hairless Dog. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, justice, mercy and wind. 5D's, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, Beyblade: Metal Fusion and Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid (the latter depicting Quetzalcoatl as a female dragon deity); the Megami Tensei video game franchise; the video games Fate/Grand Order, Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy XV, Sanitarium, Smite (as an alternate costume for his Mayan counterpart, Kukulkan), and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine; as the main antagonist in the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "How Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth"; and in the last of The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel books. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. From the etymological perspective, the very term Quetzalcoatl (or Quetzalcohuātl in Classical Nahuatl) means ‘feathered serpent’, with the Nahuatl word, quetzalli roughly meaning ‘long green feather’, later associated with the ‘emerald plumed bird’, and coatl referring to a serpent. Xolotl is the canine brother and twin of Quetzalcoatl, the pair being sons of the virgin Coatlicue. [38] In a 1986 paper for Sunstone, he noted that during the Spanish Conquest, the Native Americans and the Catholic priests who sympathized with them felt pressure to link Native American beliefs with Christianity, thus making the Native Americans seem more human and less savage. info)), in honorific form: Quetzalcōātzin) is a deity in Aztec culture and literature whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "Precious serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent". His two spirit animal forms are the Xoloitzcuintli dog and the water salamander species known as the Axolotl. Among the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documented in the historical sources, Quetzalcoatl was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of the dawn, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge. Xolotl, the god with the serious face of a great hound, said, “I am Xolotl, the Evening Star. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. Xolotl, however, was unwilling to die in order to give movement to the new Sun. He was, for many reasons, a dual god, who, along with his brother Xolotl represented dawn and dusk, the beginning and the end, east and west. From these bones, they restored mankind. Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. Quetzalcoatl was associated with the wind god Ehecatl and is often depicted with his insignia: a beak-like mask. [13], In the Aztec calendar, the ruler of the day, Itzcuintli ("Dog"), is Mictlantecuhtli, the god of death and lord of Mictlan, the afterlife. In the episode "Damnesia You," Xavier winds up in the Aztec world and is immediately (and unsuccessfully) sacrificed for insulting the Sun God, and during the sacrifice the Aztecs humorously fail to pronounce his name. "[15], Quetzalcoatl was also linked to rulership and priestly office; additionally, among the Toltec, it was used as a military title and emblem.[16]. The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. Quetzalcoatl’s twin, Xolotl, was a god associated with death. Seler speculates that Xolotl represents the murdered twin who dwells in the darkness of Mictlan, while Quetzalcoatl ("The Precious Twin") represents the surviving twi… It is possible that dog sculptures also found in burials were also intended to help people on this journey. [16] Xolotl appears to have affinities with the Zapotec and Maya lightning-dog, and may represent the lightning which descends from the thundercloud, the flash, the reflection of which arouses the misconceived belief that lightning is "double", and leads them to suppose a connection between lightning and twins. [5] His job was to protect the sun from the dangers of the underworld. Quetzalcoatl as the morning star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's rising (rebirth) every dawn, Xolotl as the evening star acts as the harbinger of the Sun's setting (death) every dusk. The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day. [18] Historian Enrique Florescano also analyzing Teotihuacan iconography argues that the Feathered Serpent was part of a triad of agricultural deities: the Goddess of the Cave symbolizing motherhood, reproduction and life, Tlaloc, god of rain, lightning and thunder and the feathered serpent, god of vegetational renewal. In some myths, the Xolotl and Quetzalcoatl appear together. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream. [29] In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Maya Young Maize god was also connected to Venus. See more ideas about aztec art, mayan art, feathered serpent. Since the sixteenth century, it has been widely held that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II initially believed the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1519 to be Quetzalcoatl's return. Later on, Xavier and the Aztecs summon Quetzalcoatl in his mortal form and wind up angering him after cutting him open. [1] He was also god of twins, monsters, misfortune, sickness, and deformities. Quetzalcoatl and His spirit twin, Xolotl, the god with the serious face of a great hound, said, “I am Xolotl, the Evening Star. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". He was the twin of Quetzalcoatl, the pair being sons of the virgin Coatlicue, and was the dark personification of Venus, the evening star. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. A particularly ugly one too. In the iconography of the classic period, Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: a snake is often seen as the embodiment of the sky itself, and a vision serpent is a shamanic helper presenting Maya kings with visions of the underworld. He was commonly depicted as a dog-headed man and was a soul-guide for the dead. [22] In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald. Xolotl was also the god of fire and lighting, sickness and deformities. In this way they divide the single life-death process of cyclical transformation into its two phases: one leading from birth to death, the other from death to birth. The earthly dog was created from these same bones, and presented to mankind as a gift from the gods. Mexico's flagship airline Aeroméxico has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery. He was the dark twin of Quetzalcoatl, responsible for guiding the Sun through Mictlán, the Underworld. He was also the patron god of the Aztec priesthood, of learning and knowledge. Seler speculates that Xolotl represents the murdered twin who dwells in the darkness of Mictlan, while Quetzalcoatl ("The Precious Twin") represents the surviving twin who dwells in the light of the sun. [8] Xolotl is able to help in the Sun's rebirth since he possesses the power to enter and exit the underworld. Ehecatl ("God of Wind") consequently began slaying all other gods to induce the newly created Sun into movement. The dog-headed god is a psychopomp, the god who guides the soul of normal people to Mictlan. At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. [40][41] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! [28][29][30][31][32] Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. [8], Xolotl was the patron of the Mesoamerican ballgame. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize corn to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. Ver más ideas sobre arte prehispanico, aztecas, prehispanico. Seler characterizes Nanahuatzin ("Little Pustule Covered One"), who is deformed by syphilis, as an aspect of Xolotl in his capacity as god of monsters, deforming diseases, and deformities. When possessing a child, Quetzalcoatl develops feathers all over his body and also a feather tail. In one version of a particularly well-known myth, that of the creation of mankind, Quetzalcoatl and his twin travel to Mictlan, the Aztec underworld, to retrieve the bones of the dead so that humans can be created. Aztec statuary depicts the two deities Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl back to back, joined into a single, Janus-faced entity. Historians debate to what degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. [20], To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile (much like a dragon), who was a boundary-maker (and transgressor) between earth and sky. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and springtime. [23], A jade statue of a skeletal Xolotl carrying a solar disc bearing an image of the Sun on his back[24][25] (called "the Night Traveler") succinctly portrays Xolotl's role in assisting the Sun through the process of death, gestation, and rebirth. To both Teotihuacan and Maya cultures, Venus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare.[19]. On the basis of the iconography of the feathered serpent deity at sites such as Teotihuacan, Xochicalco, Chichén Itzá, Tula and Tenochtitlan combined with certain ethnohistorical sources, historian David Carrasco has argued that the preeminent function of the feathered serpent deity throughout Mesoamerican history was the patron deity of the Urban center, a god of culture and civilization. [11] Quetzalcoatl was one of several important gods in the Aztec pantheon, along with the gods Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli. During the epi-classic period, a dramatic spread of feathered serpent iconography is evidenced throughout Mesoamerica, and during this period begins to figure prominently at sites such as Chichén Itzá, El Tajín, and throughout the Maya area. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. This article is about a Mesoamerican deity. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. And when the wind rose, when the dust rumbled, and it crack and there was a great din, became it became dark and the wind blew in many directions, and it thundered; then it was said: "[Quetzalcoatl] is wrathful. [8], In art, Xolotl was typically depicted as a dog-headed man, a skeleton, or a deformed monster with reversed feet. The Maya people, for instance, referred to Quetzalcoatl as Kukulkán, whilst the Quiché of Guatemala knew this god as Gucumatz. The most common translation is "water-dog" . Quetzalcoatl represented Venus as the morning star, and Xolotl represented it as the evening star. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. They both are believed to be twins or the canine companion of each other. Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life.

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